Returning to the narrative, Caesar relates the circumstances of a surprise attack. viii â¢ A Notebook for Caesarâs De Bello Gallico More than grammar, forms, and even strange word order, it is vocabulary that will hold you back from reading the Latin language with fl uency and comprehension. He himself, though the matter was one of great difficulty and labor, yet thought it to be most expedient for all the ships to be brought up on shore and joined with the camp by one fortification. 57 Labienus, since he was confining himself within a camp strongly fortified by the nature of the ground and by art, had no apprehensions as to his own and the legion�s danger, but was devising that he might throw away no opportunity of conducting the war successfully. He writes in the letter, that he having set out with his legions, will quickly be there: he entreats him to maintain his ancient valor. 36 Much troubled by these events, Q. Titurius, when he had perceived Ambiorix in the distance encouraging his men, sends to him his interpreter, Cn. 28 Arpineius and Junius relate to the lieutenants what they had heard. There, Caesar learns firsthand of the crisis at Cicero's camp. Finally, some of the Nervii who are growing weary of battle suggest a parley with Cicero and, when agreed to, tell Cicero the same story which Ambiorix has told Sahinus — that all Gaul is under arms and that the Germans are joining them. The following day the enemy, having collected far greater forces, attack the camp [and] fill up the ditch. That evening, the Gauls begin to depart in no particular order, and, at a signal, Labienus dispatches his cavalry out the two gates with orders, that, when the enemy panics and runs, they should first make for Indutiomarus and kill him. The enemy soldiers, naturally enough, are encouraged and, hoping mightily for booty, keep their position and fight with new courage. Caesar advances into the territories of Cassivellaunus as far as the Thames; an engagement with that prince.XIX. The climate is more temperate than in Gaul, the colds being less severe. Next day, small parties begin attack on the Roman horsemen. More messages, meanwhile, continue to be sent to Caesar, but the bearers continue to be captured, tortured, and killed within sight of the camp. 45 In proportion as the attack became daily more formidable and violent, and particularly, because, as a great number of the soldiers were exhausted with wounds, the matter had come to a small number of defenders, more frequent letters and messages were sent to Caesar; a part of which messengers were taken and tortured to death in the sight of our soldiers. This affair having been known, all the forces of the Eburones and the Nervii which had assembled, depart; and for a short time after this action, Caesar was less harassed in the government of Gaul. Thus, except for the Aedui and Remi, Caesar remains suspicious of almost all the Gallic states. He witnesses with surprise the towers, mantelets, and [other] fortifications belonging to the enemy: the legion having been drawn out, he finds that even every tenth soldier had not escaped without wounds. Ambiorix and Catuvolcus, induced by Indutiomarus of the Treveri, attack a detachment of Romans who are gathering wood, then attack the main camp and are effective until the Roman cavalry arrives. â Caesar, De Bello Gallico The Gallic Wars, the series of campaigns waged by Julius Caesar on behalf of the Roman Senate between 58-50 BC, were among the defining conflicts of the Roman era. He begins to assemble an army for war and hides in the forest those people who cannot fight. Menu. 24 The ships having been drawn up and a general assembly of the Gauls held at Samarobriva, because the corn that year had not prospered in Gaul by reason of the droughts, he was compelled to station his army in its winter-quarters differently from the former years, and to distribute the legions among several states: one of them he gave to C. Fabius, his lieutenant, to be marched into the territories of the Morini; a second to Q. Cicero, into those of the Nervii; a third to L. Roscius, into those of the Essui; a fourth he ordered to winter with T. Labienus among the Remi in the confines of the Treviri; he stationed three in Belgium; over these he appointed M. Crassus, his questor, and L. Munatius Plancus and C. Trebonius, his lieutenants. FREE TO TRY FOR 30 DAYS. Again, when they had begun to return to that place from which they had advanced, they were surrounded both by those who had retreated and by those who stood next them; but if, on the other hand, they wish to keep their place, neither was an opportunity left for valor, nor could they, being crowded together, escape the weapons cast by so large a body of men. Anthropo Chap 5 Vocab 15 Terms. The Gauls straggle away, careless and overconfident, and the Roman charge catches them off guard. Together they kill several enemy soldiers, then hurry back inside their lines. He easily gains over the Nervii by this speech. Cicero is confronted by the same story Ambiorix presented Sabinus, but he refuses to talk to an enemy under arms. He makes it as small as possible, hoping that the enemy will be so rash that their moves will be careless and prove fatal for them. Ambiorix quickly tells his troops to keep at a safe distance in case of another Roman charge. He persuades his slave, by the hope of freedom, and by great rewards, to convey a letter to Caesar. But the system of cavalry engagement is wont to produce equal danger, and indeed the same, both to those who retreat and to those who pursue. On their arrival, he asks for the loyalty of Indutiomarus, then takes the precaution of winning the other chiefs of the Treveri over to Cingetorix. Caesar proceeds on his second expedition against Britain.IX. Book 8 84 6.1.9 Summary of the results of the analysis of the excerpts from De Bello Gallico 87 6.2. Cotta and Sabinus are alarmed at the report brought to them. In the same place, the cavalry of the whole of Gaul, in number 4,000, assembles, and [also] the chief persons of all the states; he had determined to leave in Gaul a very few of them, whose fidelity toward him he had clearly discerned, and take the rest with him as hostages; because he feared a commotion in Gaul when he should be absent. When they near Ambiorix, they are told to put down their arms and while Ambiorix discusses peace with Sabinus, they are all surrounded and killed. [4.1] The following winter (this was the year in which Cn. bookmarked pages associated with this title. In Book 5, Chapter 44 the Commentarii de Bello Gallico notably mentions Lucius Vorenus and Titus Pullo, two Roman centurions of the 11th Legion. He tells the Nervii that it will be easy to attack the legion wintering with Cicero. 30 This discussion having been held on the two sides, when opposition was offered strenuously by Cotta and the principal officers, �Prevail,� said Sabinus, �if so you wish it;� and he said it with a louder voice, that a great portion of the soldiers might hear him; �nor am I the person among you,� he said, �who is most powerfully alarmed by the danger of death; these will be aware of it, and then, if any thing disastrous shall have occurred, they will demand a reckoning at your hands; these, who, if it were permitted by you, united three days hence with the nearest winter-quarters, may encounter the common condition of war with the rest, and not, as if forced away and separated far from the rest, perish either by the sword or by famine.� from which, if immediate danger was not to be dreaded, yet certainly famine, by a protracted siege, was.� 10 The next day, early in the morning, he sent both foot-soldiers and horse in three divisions on an expedition to pursue those who had fled. But the soldiers advanced with such speed and such ardor, though they stood above the water by their heads only, that the enemy could not sustain the attack of the legions and of the horse, and quitted the banks, and committed themselves to flight. Still, however, Cingetorix seems likely to be favored by the Romans when several more chiefs of the Treveri ask for Caesar's aid in the name of Cingetorix. Yet, though assailed by so many disadvantages, [and] having received many wounds, they withstood the enemy, and, a great portion of the day being spent, though they fought from day-break till the eighth hour, they did nothing which was unworthy of them. Discover the latest and greatest in eBooks and Audiobooks. Then they shouted, according to their custom, that some of our men should go forward to a conference, [alleging] that they had some things which they desired to say respecting the common interest, by which they trusted their disputes could be removed. That day he is able to move twenty miles and at sundown further plans are made: Crassus is left with a legion to take care of Samarobriva, the baggage, hostages, documents, and winter food supply. The full work is split into eight sections, Book 1 to Book 8, each varying in size from approximately 5,000 to 15,000 words. I. Caesar, apprehending commotions in Gaul, ... 5 This part of Gaul having been tranquilized, he applies himself entirely both in mind and soul to the war with the Treviri and Ambiorix. This day was by far the most calamitous to our men; it had this result, however, that on that day the largest number of the enemy was wounded and slain, since they had crowded beneath the very rampart, and the hindmost did not afford the foremost a retreat. He then proclaims an armed convention, marking the beginning of war. The conflict is more than a skirmish; it is of major proportions, for Trebonius has three legions, plus his cavalry with him — in all 15,000 to 17,000 men. They with difficulty sustain the attack till night; despairing of safety, they all to a man destroy themselves in the night. Caesar goes to port Itius; his policy in taking certain Gallic chieftains with him to Britain.VI. All the legions are within 100 miles of one another. 34 But judgment was not wanting to the barbarians; for their leaders ordered [the officers] to proclaim through the ranks �that no man should quit his place; that the booty was theirs, and for them was reserved whatever the Romans should leave; therefore let them consider that all things depended on their victory. In the mean time, he was apprised by all the lieutenants and questors to whom he had assigned the legions, that they had arrived in winter-quarters, and that the place for the quarters was fortified. One of the Gallic troopers immediately leaves with a message to Cicero. The contrast between the brave hut cautious Cotta and the foolhardy Sabinus is intentional; one acts like a fool, the other like a soldier. In addition, he provides that they be propelled both by oars and sails. Gallic Wars Book 4 (55 B.C.E.) The Treveri possess more cavalry than all the other Gauls and also have a great number of ready infantry troops; unfortunately, they also have rival chieftains — Indutiomarus and Cingetorix. Ambiorix tells the Roman representatives that he is much indebted to Caesar and does not wish to make war but that he has been forced to do so by the people of his state. In the middle of this voyage, is an island, which is called Mona: many smaller islands besides are supposed to lie [there], of which islands some have written that at the time of the winter solstice it is night there for thirty consecutive days. And this, though it was small in itself, [there being] scarcely 7,000 men, and these too without baggage, still by the narrowness of the passages, he contracts as much as he can, with this object, that he may come into the greatest contempt with the enemy. But, curiously, the natives do not take nearly the advantage of natural resources that they might. 17 The following day the enemy halted on the hills, a distance from our camp, and presented themselves in small parties, and began to challenge our horse to battle with less spirit than the day before. It is Labienus who finishes Indutiomarns' defeat. The Romans charge and the cavalry joins in. Caesar, since he had determined to pass the winter on the continent, on account of the sudden revolts of Gaul, and as much of the summer did not remain, and he perceived that even that could be easily protracted, demands hostages, and prescribes what tribute Britain should pay each year to the Roman people; he forbids and commands Cassivellaunus that he wage not war against Mandubratius or the Trinobantes. Finally departing, after a long period of waiting for fair weather, Caesar leaves Labienus on the continent with three legions and 2,000 horsemen to guard the port and to maintain the grain supply. emma_dalbo. The remainder limp back inside the camp, and Lucius Petrosidius, the standard bearer, manages to throw his flag inside the camp before he is killed. He gives high praise to the legion and especially to Cicero for his bravery; next day, he tells them of all that has happened, including the fate of Sabinus and Cotta, but the courage of their legions, he says, has made up for Sabinus' foolhardiness. But this seems a parallel for another kind of contrast in the book — the contrast between Sabinus and Cicero. The length of this side, as their account states, is 700 miles. This report having been carried to the Treviri, Indutiomarus, who had resolved to attack the camp of Labienus the following day, flies by night and leads back all his forces into the country of the Treviri. He replies that logically they should take their request to Caesar; that answer naturally reveals the enemy's treachery. Cicero declares firmly that Romans do not accept terms from an armed enemy. Read De Bello Gallico and Other Commentaries online by Julius Caesar at ReadCentral.com, the free online library full of thousands of classic books. Caesar will save them from slaughter. Already, he boasts, he has killed two legion commanders and has destroyed a large part of the Roman army. Dumnorix, who was to have been in that number, by craft and violence, escapes attending Caesar, but is slain.VII. In these matters he employed about ten days, the labor of the soldiers being unremitting even during the hours of night. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting local armies in â¦ Their parley unsuccessful, the Nervii surround the Roman camp with a rampart nine feet high and a trench fifteen feet wide, a technique they have learned from the Romans. These being brought to him on the day which he had ordered, he appoints arbitrators between the states, who should estimate the damages and determine the reparation. Having related the exploit and roused the Aduatuci, the next day he arrived among the Nervii, and entreats �that they should not throw away the opportunity of liberating themselves forever and of punishing the Romans for those wrongs which they had received from them;� [he tells them] �that two lieutenants have been slain, and that a large portion of the army has perished; that it was not a matter of difficulty for the legion which was wintering with Cicero to be cut off, when suddenly assaulted; he declares himself ready to cooperate in that design. Cicero is astonished; he has not even heard of the defeat of Sabinus' legion. CliffsNotes study guides are written by real teachers and professors, so no matter what you're studying, CliffsNotes can ease your homework headaches and help you score high on exams. One other, with five cohorts, is sent to the Eburones, a tribe ruled by Ambiorix and Catuvolcus; this legion is commanded by Quintus Titurius Sabinus and Lucius Aurunculeins Cotta. Removing #book# The Gaul, as he has been told, ties his message to a spear and throws it into Cicero's camp. There L. Cotta, while fighting, is slain, together with the greater part of the soldiers; the rest betake themselves to the camp, from which they had marched forth, and one of them, L. Petrosidius, the standard bearer, when he was overpowered by the great number of the enemy, threw the eagle within the intrenchments and is himself slain while fighting with the greatest courage before the camp. De Bello Gallico Book 1. In the mean time, while they treat upon the terms, and a longer debate than necessary is designedly entered into by Ambiorix, being surrounded by degrees, he is slain. Discover the latest and greatest in eBooks and Audiobooks. He quarters his forces contrary to his custom, in several divisions.XXV. Latin De Bello Gallico Caesar Book 4.24-.36.1 13 Terms. The Senones try to murder the king whom Caesar has appointed, but luckily the king hears of their plans and manages to escape. Caesar receives hostages, and leads back his army into Gaul.XXIV. They themselves rushed out of the woods to fight here and there, and prevented our men from entering their fortifications. Caesar, anxious to return to the continent, asks for hostages and sets the yearly tribute that the tribes of Britain must pay Rome. The Gallic-type huts inside are straw-roofed and quickly catch fire. At length, each thigh of T. Balventius, who the year before had been chief centurion, a brave man and one of great authority, is pierced with a javelin; Q. Lucanius, of the same rank, fighting most valiantly, is slain while he assists his son when surrounded by the enemy; L. Cotta, the lieutenant, when encouraging all the cohorts and companies, is wounded full in the mouth by a sling. Indutiomarus is thereby deterred from attacking the camp of Labienus.LVI.-LVIII. Caesar strikes, ordering his men to charge out from all gates, cavalry first. That fact Caesar had learned from his own personal friends. When Indutiomarus, however, learns of the general's feat, he abandons his plan of attack and moves his forces. De Bello Gallico by Caio Júlio César. The council demands that the generals settle on one plan; danger, they insist, lies in disagreement and eventually it is Cotta who yields. Pompey, to beg that he would spare him and his soldiers. Indutiomarus and Cingetorix.V. They, greatly alarmed by the unexpected affair, though those things were spoken by an enemy, still thought they were not to be disregarded; and they were especially influenced by this consideration, that it was scarcely credible that the obscure and humble state of the Eburones had dared to make war upon the Roman people of their own accord. The message, written in Greek, says that Caesar is on the way and to continue the resistance. The Nervii agree and send messages to the tribes under them asking for troops. De Bello Civili 93 6.2.1. Tin is produced in the midland regions; in the maritime, iron; but the quantity of it is small: they employ brass, which is imported. The Gaul apprehending danger, throws his spear as he has been directed. The enemy, having remained only a short time, did not sustain the attack of our soldiers, and hurried away on the other side of the town. Quintus Lucanius, also a chief centurion, has been butchered while trying to save his son. Caesar moves for the stronghold, a thick woodland with natural barriers in addition to those built by the enemy, and attacks from two sides. courtneydunne. Tasgetius.XXVI. But the enemy, after some time had elapsed, when our men were off their guard, and occupied in the fortification of the camp, rushed out of the woods, and making an attack upon those who were placed on duty before the camp, fought in a determined manner; and two cohorts being sent by Caesar to their relief, and these severally the first of two legions, when these had taken up their position at a very small distance from each other, as our men were disconcerted by the unusual mode of battle, the enemy broke through the middle of them most courageously, and retreated thence in safety. Because there are so many prisoners and soldiers, however, Caesar must make two trips. 11 These things being known [to him], Caesar orders the legions and cavalry to be recalled and to cease from their march; he himself returns to the ships: he sees clearly before him almost the same things which he had heard of from the messengers and by letter, so that, about forty ships being lost, the remainder seemed capable of being repaired with much labor. 29 In opposition to those things, Titurius exclaimed, �That they would do this too late, when greater forces of the enemy, after a junction with the Germans, should have assembled; or when some disaster had been received in the neighboring winter-quarters; that the opportunity for deliberating was short; that he believed that Caesar had set forth into Italy, as the Carnutes would not otherwise have taken the measure of slaying Tasgetius, nor would the Eburones, if he had been present, have come to the camp with so great defiance of us; that he did not regard the enemy, but the fact, as the authority; that the Rhine was near; that the death of Ariovistus and our previous victories were subjects of great indignation to the Germans; that Gaul was inflamed, that after having received so many defeats she was reduced under the sway of the Roman people, her pristine glory in military matters being extinguished.� Lastly, �who would persuade himself of this, that Ambiorix had resorted to a design of that nature without sure grounds? 2 â¢ A Notebook for Caesarâs De Bello Gallico [1.1] Gallia est omnis dÄ«vÄ«sa in partÄs trÄs, quÄrum Å«nam incolunt Belgae, aliam AquÄ«tÄnÄ«, tertiam quÄ« ipsÅrum linguÄ Celtae, nostrÄ GallÄ« appellantur. But at noon, when Caesar had sent three legions, and all the cavalry, with C. Trebonius, the lieutenant, for the purpose of foraging, they flew upon the foragers suddenly from all quarters, so that they did not keep off [even] from the standards and the legions. There he discovers that forty ships, which had been built in the country of the Meldi, having been driven back by a storm, had been unable to maintain their course, and had returned to the same port from which they had set out; he finds the rest ready for sailing, and furnished with every thing. Pullo dashes outside and Vorenus, not wanting to be outdone, joins him. The easy way to get free eBooks every day. When the fight was going on most vigorously before the fortifications, Pulfio, one of them, says, �Why do you hesitate, Varenus? Science, Tech, Math Science Math Social Sciences Computer Science ... Julius Caesar Summary and Study Guide. The new ones, however, he explains, are to be built differently than the others; they will be lower and wider than usual so that cargo and animals can be more easily carried and unloaded. The Roman fleet suffers severely in a storm.XI. A strong wind whips at the Romans on the seventh day and the enemy takes advantage of it, hurling hot clay pellets and burning darts. That also occurred to him, which was the consequence of a necessary work-that some soldiers who had gone off into the woods for the purpose of procuring timber and therewith constructing fortifications, were intercepted by the sudden arrival of [the enemy�s] horse. He sends another to C. Fabius, the lieutenant, ordering him to lead forth his legion into the territories of the Atrebates, to which he knew his march must be made. But they know they can withstand the enemy from their entrenchment; this they have already demonstrated, and they have enough food and can send for aid, so their courage is bolstered. Now you can read De Bello Gallico and Other Commentaries free from the comfort of your computer or mobile phone and enjoy other many other free books by Julius Caesar. It is a disheartening situation, but the Romans stand firm, though many continue to be wounded. Written by David Perry, this new text introduces intermediate and advanced students to Caesarâs De Bello Gallico.. A Call to Conquest contains all the readings on the Advanced Placement ® Latin Examination from Books 1, 4, 5, and 6. De Bello Gallico in Latin by Julius Caesar. Then stones having been cast from every quarter, the enemy were dislodged, and their tower set on fire. The stratagem of Cassivellaunus.XX. Book 8 was written by Aulus Hirtius, after Caesar's death. Passages for the AP Latin Caesar exam from Book I of Caesar's Gallic Wars (de bello Gallico). He also says that the Gauls have agreed to simultaneously attack all Romans so that the legions will be unable to aid one another. Fabius, without delaying a moment, meets him on the march with his legion, as he had been commanded. The day grows late and, because they are on unfamiliar territory, Caesar decides against further pursuit, and orders the entrenchment of the camp. An epic battle follows, in which the Romans own and Ambiorix flees. When Caesar got proconsul of Gallia and Illyria in 58 B.C, the conquest of land in Gaul was an urgent need, both to improve his political standing and to calm his creditors in Rome. In this way he keeps some of Gaul in peace. Just as his men have sighted the enemy, Quintus Atrius sends word that a storm has damaged many of the ships, and Caesar commands the troops to defer attack. There is also an 8th book, written by Aulus Hirtius. Our men were equal to them in fighting, both in courage and in number, and though they were deserted by their leader and by fortune, yet they still placed all hope of safety in their valor, and as often as any cohort sallied forth on that side, a great number of the enemy usually fell. When the Romans are building camp and are off-guard, he writes, the enemy dashes from the woods and attacks the outposts. Even Cotta, himself has been smashed in the face by a missile. Next morning Caesar sees the enemy for himself and, thankful that Cicero is no longer critically threatened, plans his new moves. The issue justifies the policy of the man, and since all aimed at one, Indutiomarus is slain, having been overtaken at the very ford of the river, and his head is carried to the camp, the horse, when returning, pursue and slay all whom they can. If he and his men, therefore, stay where they are, they might find themselves without food. When he had arrived there, he levies soldiers upon the states, and orders them to assemble at an appointed place. He says he has been summoned by various Gallic states and that they will march through the land of the Remi, destroying as they go, and that they will attack Labienus' camp. Unfortunately, however, the spear pierces one of the towers and is not discovered until three days later. Cassivellaunus next calls in forces from the other districts of Kent and attacks Caesar's naval camp, but is quickly put down by the Romans. These used to have continual disputes between them which of them should be preferred, and every year used to contend for promotion with the utmost animosity. Thus the whole island is [about] 2,000 miles in circumference. Caesar sends back Fabius with his legion to his winter-quarters; he himself determines to winter with three legions near Samarobriva in three different quarters, and, because such great commotions had arisen in Gaul, he resolved to remain during the whole winter with the army himself. The bold resistance of the Britons; they are defeated.X. When permission was granted, they recount the same things which Ambiorix had related to Titurius, namely, �that all Gaul was in arms, that the Germans had passed the Rhine, that the winter-quarters of Caesar and of the others were attacked.� They report in addition also, about the death of Sabinus. Book 3 113 6.3 Summary of the results of the analysis of the excerpts from De Bello Civili and a comparison with the results from De Bello Gallico â¦ In Sections 21 and 22 of Book I, Caesar receives valuable information and acts immediately to gain a favorable battle position. Caesar has the Trinobantes send him hostages and grain and he grants their request. And such great influence had he already acquired for himself in Gaul by these means, that embassies were flocking to him in all directions, and seeking, publicly and privately, his favor and friendship. The Gauls, about 60,000 strong, turn to meet the Romans, and Cicero dispatches a lightning swift lad to Caesar, warning him that the enemy has turned in a great tide and is rushing toward him. Then the smoke of the fires was seen in the distance, a circumstance which banished all doubt of the arrival of the legions. This he sends written in Greek characters, lest the letter being intercepted, our measures should be discovered by the enemy. The number of the people is countless, and their buildings exceedingly numerous, for the most part very like those of the Gauls: the number of cattle is great. These having been entrapped, the Eburones, the Nervii, and the Aduatici and all their allies and dependents, begin to attack the legion: our men quickly run together to arms and mount the rampart; they sustained the attack that day with great difficulty, since the enemy placed all their hope in dispatch, and felt assured that, if they obtained this victory, they would be conquerors forever. Returning then to Hither Gaul, the general rejoins his army and finds that by extraordinary effort his men have assembled about 600 ships and twenty men-of-war vessels. Then, without warning, they attack Cicero's camp. As a final safety measure he disposes of the troublesome Dumnrix. And it so happened, that out of so large a number of ships, in so many voyages, neither in this nor in the previous year was any ship missing which conveyed soldiers; but very few out of those which were sent back to him from the continent empty, as the soldiers of the former convoy had been disembarked, and out of those (sixty in number) which Labienus had taken care to have built, reached their destination; almost all the rest were driven back, and when Caesar had waited for them for some time in vain, lest he should be debarred from a voyage by the season of the year, inasmuch as the equinox was at hand, he of necessity stowed his soldiers the more closely, and, a very great calm coming on, after he had weighed anchor at the beginning of the second watch, he reached land at break of day and brought in all the ships in safety. All the ships reached Britain nearly at mid-day; nor was there seen a [single] enemy in that place, but, as Caesar afterward found from some prisoners, though large bodies of troops had assembled there, yet being alarmed by the great number of our ships, more than eight hundred of which, including the ships of the preceding year, and those private vessels which each had built for his own convenience, had appeared at one time, they had quitted the coast and concealed themselves among the higher points. Ambiorix defends himself in reference to his share in the Gallic combination.XXVIII.-XXXI. He fearing, because several were involved in the act, that the state might revolt at their instigation, orders Lucius Plancus, with a legion, to proceed quickly from Belgium to the Carnutes, and winter there, and arrest and send to him the persons by whose instrumentality he should discover that Tasgetius was slain. The Romans are in trouble immediately and Sabinus panics. Indutiomarus realizes that he has suffered a slight from the empire and his resentment smolders. One legion which he had raised last on the other side of the Po, and five cohorts, he sent among the Eburones, the greatest portion of whom lie between the Meuse and the Rhine, [and] who were under the government of Ambiorix and Cativolcus. When he had arrived there, he perceives that numerous forces of the enemy were marshaled on the other bank of the river; the bank also was defended by sharp stakes fixed in front, and stakes of the same kind fixed under the water were covered by the river. There, as in Gaul, is timber of every description, except beech and fir. Dumnorix then begins to worry the Gallic chiefs by telling them that Caesar intends to murder them when they reach Britain. Choose from 500 different sets of de bello gallico caesar book 1 flashcards on Quizlet. His book Commentarii de Bello Gallico (Commentaries on the Gallic War, often called The Conquest of Gaul), was a propaganda piece (written in 53 BCE) justifying his military and political actions during a nine year campaign in Gaul (and a short jaunt into Britain). Latin De Bello Gallico Caesar Book 5.24-.36 13 Terms. The latter induces four princes of Cantium to attack the Romans, by whom they are defeated.XXIII. Cotta is killed, along with most of his troops. Which circumstance having been reported [to them], the Pirustae send embassadors to him to inform him that no part of those proceedings was done by public deliberation, and assert that they were ready to make compensation by all means for the injuries [inflicted]. He plans the size and shape of them. outnumbered almost nine to one, with the enemy having 60,000 troops to his 7,000, Caesar feigns fright as his foes press close to his camp. He is, he insists, the chief most fully in power and is willing to place himself and his state under Rome's protection. The Gauls and Germans, he feels, have various reasons for wanting to get even with Rome and if the Gauls and Germans are jointly armed, their best chance for victory is a quick move to the next legion. But after that, some of the chief persons of the state, both influenced by their friendship for Cingetorix, and alarmed at the arrival of our army, came to Caesar and began to solicit him privately about their own interests, since they could not provide for the safety of the state; Indutiomarus, dreading lest he should be abandoned by all, sends embassadors to Caesar, to declare that he absented himself from his countrymen, and refrained from coming to him on this account, that he might the more easily keep the state in its allegiance, lest on the departure of all the nobility the commonalty should, in their indiscretion, revolt. The Eburones and the Nervii, hearing of this defeat, turn and head for home. Sabinus' plan to march is accepted and it is announced that the troops will march at dawn. 46 Caesar having received the letter about the eleventh hour of the day, immediately sends a messenger to the Bellovaci, to M. Crassus, questor there, whose winter-quarters were twenty-five miles distant from him. The enemy soldiers brazenly advance until they meet the Roman rampart and there many are killed — mainly because so many of their own troops are behind them that they cannot withdraw. When they were brought, [and] among them his son and near relations, whom he had demanded by name, he consoled Indutiomarus, and enjoined him to continue in his allegiance; yet, nevertheless, summoning to him the chief men of the Treviri, he reconciled them individually to Cingetorix: this he both thought should be done by him in justice to the merits of the latter, and also judged that it was of great importance that the influence of one whose singular attachment toward him he had fully seen, should prevail as much as possible among his people. A tribune, Quintus Laberius Durus, is killed in the fighting. 25 There was among the Carnutes a man named Tasgetius, born of very high rank, whose ancestors had held the sovereignty in his state. PreviousTable of contentsNext. But, while the minds of all were occupied, Dumnorix began to take his departure from the camp homeward with the cavalry of the Aedui, Caesar being ignorant of it. After launching these, because he had a large number of prisoners, and some of the ships had been lost in the storm, he determines to convey back his army at two embarkations. Labienus confined his men within the fortifications, and promoted the enemy�s belief of his fear by whatever methods he could. Caesar, of course, is disappointed to have only two legions instead of three, but he cautions Labienus to remain in position and, with great speed, he and his forces move into the territory of the Nervii. Classics 2300 - Midterm 3 Passages 30 Terms. The first load leaves, but there is bad weather on the return trip to Britain and very few of the ships, including the new ones built by Labienus, make the rendezvous. Accordingly, they refer the matter to a council, and a great controversy arises among them. His personal enemies had killed him when in the third year of his reign, many even of his own state being openly promoters [of that act] This event is related to Caesar. When he had come thither, greater forces of the Britons had already assembled at that place, the chief command and management of the war having been intrusted to Cassivellaunus, whose territories a river, which is called the Thames, separates, from the maritime states at about eighty miles from the sea. 19 Cassivellaunus, as we have stated above, all hope [rising out] of battle being laid aside, the greater part of his forces being dismissed, and about 4,000 charioteers only being left, used to observe our marches and retire a little from the road, and conceal himself in intricate and woody places, and in those neighborhoods in which he had discovered we were about to march, he used to drive the cattle and the inhabitants from the fields into the woods; and, when our cavalry, for the sake of plundering and ravaging the more freely, scattered themselves among the fields, he used to send out charioteers from the woods by all the well-known roads and paths, and to the great danger of our horse, engage with them; and this source of fear hindered them from straggling very extensively. He then sends his cavalry and foot soldiers out in a sudden charge. There continue to be civil wars, however. New for the AP® Latin Examination! Before leaving, loose ends must be tied: Caesar must pacify the Treveri by settling their political difficulties and, too, he must make sure that Indutiomarus, who is hostile to Rome, has insufficient strength to rebel during the troops' absence. Caesar accepts their explanation, tells them to bring hostages, and appoints arbitrators to arrange for payment of both penalty and damages. 4:1 The following winter (this was the year in which Cn. The enemy also refuses to fight closely, spreads out, and has small parties relieve one another as they grow tired. See GAIUS SUETONIUS TRANQUILLUS, Julius Caesar, in THE TWELVE CAESARS, § 56 at 34 (Robert Graves trans., 1975) ("Hirtius, who finished 'The Gallic War', left incomplete by Caesar, add[ed] a final book. 12 The interior portion of Britain is inhabited by those of whom they say that it is handed down by tradition that they were born in the island itself: the maritime portion by those who had passed over from the country of the Belgae for the purpose of plunder and making war; almost all of whom are called by the names of those states from which being sprung they went thither, and having waged war, continued there and began to cultivate the lands. He sends messengers to Caesar, but none manages to get through enemy lines. Summary Before leaving for Italy, Caesar orders the officers in charge of the legions to spend the winter repairing old ships and building new ones. He sends the cavalry in first and orders the legions to follow; the Roman advance proves to be so swift that the enemy scatters in terror. Then with great rewards he induces a certain man of the Gallic horse to convey a letter to Cicero. Caesar, meanwhile, destroys as many fields and buildings as he can as he marches through the area. from your Reading List will also remove any Caesar demands forty hostages from them, and corn for his army, and sends Mandubratius to them. Gaius Fabius takes a legion to the Morini, Quintus Cicero takes one to the Nervii, Lucius Roscius takes one to the Esubii, and Titus Labienus takes another to the Remi. They, advancing to the river with their cavalry and chariots from the higher ground, began to annoy our men and give battle. Besides that happened, which would necessarily be the case, that the soldiers for the most part quitted their ensigns and hurried to seek and carry off from the baggage whatever each thought valuable, and all parts were filled with uproar and lamentation. 5 GallÅs ab AquÄ«tÄnÄ«s Garumna fl â¦ In this book the famous Gaius Julius Caesar himself describes the seven years of his war in Gaul. Cotta is against Sabinus' plan, but he does not contest it sufficiently and Sabinus foolishly leads the troops out of their camp, careless about the formation of the march. The reason for the destruction of Sabinus and Cotta's legions is this: the two men do not follow the long-established procedures for saving besieged legions; both are responsible for the disaster. A great amount of cattle was found there, and many of the enemy were taken and slain in their flight. The new ones, however, he explains, are to be built differently than the others; they will be lower and wider than usual so that cargo and animals can be more easily carried and unloaded. His state wars, he says, because of Gallic pressure. The enemy soldiers retreat and Caesar captures many cattle and also manages to kill many of the enemy. Caesar learns of the assassination and fears revolt, so he orders Lucius Plancus to move his legion from the land of the Belgae to the land of the Carnutes for the winter. He orders the legion to set forward in the middle of the night, and come to him with dispatch. He proclaims Cingetorix, his son-in-law who had refused to desert Caesar, an enemy and confiscates his goods. He offers great rewards for those who should kill him: he sends up the cohorts as a relief to the horse. 21 The Trinobantes being protected and secured from any violence of the soldiers, the Cenimagni, the Segontiaci, the Ancalites, the Bibroci, and the Cassi, sending embassies, surrendered themselves to Caesar. He left what seemed a sufficient number of soldiers for that design; he himself proceeds into the territories of the Treviri with four legions without baggage, and 800 horse, because they neither came to the general diets [of Gaul], nor obeyed his commands, and were moreover, said to be tampering with the Germans beyond the Rhine. From all these things he judges with what danger and with what great courage matters had been conducted; he commends Cicero according to his desert, and likewise the legion; he addresses individually the centurions and the tribunes of the soldiers, whose valor he had discovered to have been signal. Also note the multitude of soldiers involved in the battle between the Britons and Trebonius' foraging crew. Labienus' camp is well-fortified and he feels no danger, but when he learns from Cingetorix of Indutiomarus' speech at the convention, he sends messengers to neighboring states with orders to supply him cavalry. During the night as many as 120 towers are raised with incredible dispatch out of the timber which they had collected for the purpose of fortification: the things which seemed necessary to the work are completed. Later, Gains Trebonius, with three legions and the cavalry seeking forage, is attacked by the enemy. In that state, two persons, Indutiomarus and Cingetorix, were then contending with each other for the supreme power; one of whom, as soon as the arrival of Caesar and his legions was known, came to him; assures him that he and all his party would continue in their allegiance, and not revolt from the alliance of the Roman people, and informs him of the things which were going on among the Treviri. Are you sure you want to remove #bookConfirmation# The Senones, however, which is a state eminently powerful and one of great influence among the Gauls, attempting by general design to slay Cavarinus, whom Caesar had created king among them (whose brother, Moritasgus, had held the sovereignty at the period of the arrival of Caesar in Gaul, and whose ancestors had also previously held it), when he discovered their plot and fled, pursued him even to the frontiers [of the state], and drove him from his kingdom and his home; and, after having sent embassadors to Caesar for the purpose of concluding a peace, when he ordered all their senate to come to him, did not obey that command. Whether you need an overview of De Bello Gallico and Other Commentaries or a detailed summary of the book for a college project or just for fun, Readcentral.com brings you the book-wise summaries of De Bello Gallico and Other Commentaries for free.
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