characteristics of phytoplasma

0000176044 00000 n 0000003216 00000 n TENGU induces characteristic symptoms (termed “tengu-su”), including witches’ broom and dwarfism. In each system, insects are the suspected agents of spreading the disease-causing phytoplasmas. 1, Vasile Stoleru. Martini, Marta (et al.) Outlook about persepectives and future work to contain spread of these diseases are also re-ported. These plant pathogens are prokaryotes belonging to the Mollicutes class since they lack a cell wall; up to now they were not cultivated in axenic culture therefore Koch postulates are only sometimes fulfilled by using alternative tools, such as graft or insect transmission. 0000022711 00000 n 10 characteristics of good communication Diabetes and heart problems Lorecentral.org is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to amazon.com doi: 10.3897/BDJ.7.e32910. 0000005703 00000 n 1. 0000003521 00000 n Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov. Lee IM, Gunderson DE, Davis RE, Botter KD, Seemuller E. Candidatus phytoplasma asteries, a novel phytoplasma taxon associated with aster yellows and related diseases. 0000025278 00000 n 0000003173 00000 n 3. Phytoplasma’ species, the scientific community is now attempting to provide a classification that takes in-to account both the phylogenetic and the biological/ ecological characteristics of the organisms. Favali, 2003). USDA INHOUSE. Characteristics of Culture. Since they are, several hundreds of diseases are associated with the plants. Rao, Govind Pratap (et al.) %PDF-1.4 %���� 0000175799 00000 n 0000113087 00000 n Molecular characteristics of phytoplasmas associated with Flavescence doree in clematis and grapevine and preliminary results on the role of Dictyophara europaea as a vector By Luisa Filippin, Jelena Jović, Tatjana Cvrković, Vally Forte, D. Clair, Ivo Toševski, E. Boudon-Padieu, Michele Borgo and Elisa Angelini J Appl Microbiol. They are also phloem limited and have no cell wall (Lee et al., 2000; IRPCM, 2004). Since they are, several hundreds of diseases are associated with the plants. Front Biosci. The incidence of the two reference strains on cultivated grapevines is unbalanced, and mixed infections are rare. Molecular detection and characterization of phytoplasma infecting Celosia argentea L. plants in Lithuania M. Samuitienė and M. Navalinskienė Institute of Botany, Žaliųjų Ežerų 49, Vilnius LT-08406, Lithuania; e-mail: msamuit@botanika.lt Abstract. Physiol Mol Biol Plants. USA.gov. 0000004698 00000 n Characterization of a phytoplasma affecting sunflower crops in Argentina Fabiana Guzmán1, Fabián Giolitti1, Franco Fernandez1, Claudia Nome1, Sergio Lenardon1,2 and Luis Conci1,3 1- Instituto de Patología Vegetal (IPAVE), Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (CIAP), Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), Camino 60 cuadras Km 5,5, X5020ICA, Córdoba, Argentina. 0000002168 00000 n 5306-22000-014-32R Proposal … phytoplasma.ppt 1. As an individual grows in a particular environment he learns about different aspects of culture through his interaction with other members of society. Several economically relevant phytoplasma-associated diseasesare described together with an update of phytoplasma taxonomy and major biological and molecular features of phytoplasmas. The 5th in the series "Plant Pathogens: Characterization, Diagnosis and Management", this volume contains 19 chapters on the characterization, diagnosis and management of phytoplasmas of various crops. 0000199448 00000 n Abstract. 0000007005 00000 n 0000175686 00000 n A few clematis plants were Sprache: Englisch. 0000005295 00000 n Xu Q, Tian G, Wang Z, Kong F, Li Y, Wang H. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. January, … 0000142130 00000 n 0000026068 00000 n 0 startxref 0000022252 00000 n Symptoms of diseased Celosia argentea L. plants included flower phyllody, general yellowing and stunting of plants. 464 0 obj <>stream 0000002353 00000 n [Molecular detection and variability of jujube witches'-broom phytoplasmas from different cultivars in various regions of China]. Molecular characteristics of phytoplasmas associated with Flavescence dorée in clematis and grapevine and preliminary results on the role of ... such as Macedonia, Croatia and some areas of Italy and Serbia. Their impact in agriculture and the periodical outbreak of worrying epidemics make very important, besides precise laboratory-based diagnosis, the direct in-field recognition of phytoplasma disease symptoms. Çağlayan, M. Gazel, Ç.U. Further characterization of the phytoplasma infecting watercress in Hawaii has included the cloning and sequencing of the Rp and Tuf genes in addition to the cloning and sequencing of the 16S/SR/23S ribosomal DNA genes previously characterized. endstream endobj 463 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/Index[55 345]/Length 34/Size 400/Type/XRef/W[1 1 1]>>stream Energy generation in phytoplasmas seems to be restricted to glycolysis because ATP synthases are absent. %%EOF 0000070969 00000 n  |   |  TERMINATED Funding Source. Because of the ownership, if he gets a profit from the business then the whole profits are received by the sole proprietor. I56/10103/2008 A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Science (Biotechnology) in the School of Pure and Applied Sciences of Kenyatta University. In this paper molecular, biological and epidemiological characteristics of phytoplasma are described Int J cell Sci & mol biol 2(5): IJCSMB.MS.ID.555599 (2017) 00112 Introduction Phytoplasma are phloem colonizing prokaryotes, which are morphologically resembling mycoplasmas was first shown in 1967 [1]. 1 and . 0000024226 00000 n Ekta Khasa 1, Gopala 1, Aido Taloh 1, T. Prabha 2, Madhupriya 1 & G. P. Rao 1 3 Biotech volume 6, Article number: 237 (2016) Cite this article. Phytoplasma SAP11 effector destabilization of TCP transcription factors differentially impact development and defence of Arabidopsis versus maize. H�\��n�@D�|��C� =݉�,9v"��I��� c/����;EE��H6A�T�L��v�w��?�����]��p�� �N]�-�v���4�7�z��T��]�p���!�*��L//S���u;�}���6Į?��ߛ�����q�Ρ��­V� �$����sp�\��k��n�=���/~�����yI3�І�X7!��)d�"]+W��k�����7��͟:fU���tK�d?��O�'�o����_���d�*�V���%y .�ؓ=���%�� Grapevine comparative early transcriptomic profiling suggests that Flavescence dorée phytoplasma represses plant responses induced by vector feeding in susceptible varieties. Phytoplasma diseases may be able to be controlled through application of antibiotics such as tetracycline and rifampicin [26], but these are not approved for commercial production anywhere that I am aware of. (1979) Antibiotic sensitivity Tetracycline Ishii et al. Here, we aimed to study the characteristics of SCWL phytoplasma transmission by M. hiroglyphicus.To this end, the stylet penetration activities performed during the acquisition … Characteristics of Phytoplasma - Transform floral organs into leaf like structure (weeks/years post infection) - Overwinter in roots of perennial plants (disease reservoir) - Once insects and plants are infected, they are infected for life -No chemical to control phytoplasma (except antibiotics) by Gabriel-Ciprian Teliban. In 2009, a secreted protein, termed “tengu-su inducer” (TENGU; C0H5W6), was identified from a phytoplasma causing yellowing of onions; this was the first phytoplasmal virulence factor to be described. Biodivers Data J. 0000002548 00000 n 0000018941 00000 n 2020 Mar;26(3):445-458. doi: 10.1007/s12298-020-00764-8. Phytoplasma belonging to subgroup 16SrII-A and identified as “Candidatus Phytoplasma australasiae”- was found constantly associated with phyllody of Pedalium murex, a common medicinal cum succulent weed in coconut ecosystem prevalent in South India. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Molecular characterization of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali' strains in outbreaks of apple proliferation in north eastern Italy, Hungary, and Serbia. 0000024636 00000 n 0000199504 00000 n Using PCR and phytoplasma 16S rRNA gene-specific universal primers, we observed positive amplification for the phytoplasma specific primers in five out of twenty samples. Sponsoring Institution. 2007 Dec;103(6):2325-30. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2007.03467.x. 0000010043 00000 n Article Overview In this article, we will examine the twelve-team characteristics that seem to point toward ineffectiveness. 0000005961 00000 n The amplified products were cloned, sequenced and nucleotide (NT) sequence comparisons were made with the available phytoplasmas’ 16S rRNA gene NT sequence j���Z)�%X���@S�Q�Q�K�K�/�>s r ����xf�����Ã��<. Epub 2020 Feb 21. Two strains of phytoplasmas were collected for this study. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Other symptoms of phytoplasma infection might be stunted plants, a “ witches’ broom ” appearance on terminal new bud growth, stunted roots, aerial tubers and even die back of … The planned book will compile all the updated information available information on phytoplasmas by distinguished experts in the form of edited book entitled “Characterization and epidemiology of phytoplasma associated diseases”. Reporting Frequency. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Phytoplasma-specific PCR primer pairs P1/P7 (Schneider et al., 1995), R16mF2/R16mR1 (Lee et al., 1993) and fU5/rU3 (Lorenz et al., 1995), which prime the amplifi-cation of 16S rDNA from all phytoplasmas, were used in PCR assays to determine the presence or absence of phytoplasma DNA in symptomatic and nonsymptomatic watercress and other plants growing in the vicinity of watercress … 1180 Accesses. 0000221539 00000 n h�bb�e`b``Ń3� �����'> > Phytoplasmas: genetics, diagnosis and relationships with the plant and insect host. xref That sole trader has both the authority and responsibility(i.e., ownership) of his business so that he manages the assets and liabilities of his business and as well as increases the growth of business also. Biochemical, Physiological and Yield Characteristics of Red Basil as Affected by Cultivar and Fertilization . 2005;70(3):253-5. For those incomplete genomes, the true genome sizes are difficult to determine. Abstract Phytoplasmas are among the most recently discovered plant pathogens. In apple typically a witches ‘broom like growth of the shoots is induced and in pear early autumn discoloration of the leaves is a striking characteristic. 1, Lorena-Diana Popa. Molecular Characterization of Phytoplasma-associated Disease in Tomato (Lycopersicun esculentum) in Saudi Arabia. Ownership of a business is the first characteristics of sole proprietorship and in this type of business enterprise, there is an individual who manages and controls his business. ���0�݁� ��W�Ŵ�G�I�%��Y����[�E� jy#����D�^����/�..�Hx��1�֔�g�δ� 1":��n��qE���� D �>�k�s m��`U��@o�`b`����� � 2, Andrei Lobiuc. JX104336) sequence showed the highest sequence identity 99% brinjal little leaf phytoplasma (KC178679), identified as a member of group 16SrVI, „Ca. 0000026200 00000 n 0000025527 00000 n An online global database of Hemiptera-Phytoplasma-Plant biological interactions. 2000;54:221-55. doi: 10.1146/annurev.micro.54.1.221. 0000334676 00000 n Here we provide an outline of the characteristics and composi-tion of the genus ‘Ca. eCollection 2019 Sep. Bertazzon N, Bagnaresi P, Forte V, Mazzucotelli E, Filippin L, Guerra D, Zechini A, Cattivelli L, Angelini E. BMC Genomics. Phytoplasmas: Plant Pathogenic Bacteria - I: Characterisation and Epidemiology of Phytoplasma - Associated Diseases: Govind Pratap Rao, Assunta Bertaccini, Nicola Fiore, Lia W. Liefting: 9789811301186: Books - Amazon.ca <]/Prev 369015/XRefStm 2168>> Abstract During 2005-2008 apple plants of different varieties showing proliferation symptoms were observed in diverse areas of north eastern Italy, Hungary and Serbia. Molecular characterization of phytoplasmas of ‘Clover proliferation’ group associated with three ornamental plant species in India. Phytoplasma’. Serçe, K. Kaya, F.C. Characteristic phytoplasma Phytoplasma’, cannot be readily differentiated and classified. 0000006589 00000 n The primary visible effect are yellowing leaves, stunted and rolled foliage and unripened shoots and fruits. Sequence analysis of the Rp and Tuf genes has been used by many workers to further classify phytoplasmas of the Aster Yellows group. Phytoplasma : An Introduction and Classification with Recent Molecular Tools by SUJATA DANDALE 2. Keywords Phytoplasma Diseases, Detection, Prevention 1. Phytoplasmas (‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’), first known as mycoplasma-like organisms, are wall-less, insect vectored bacteria that cause disease in more than a thousand different plant hosts, affecting weedy, ornamental and crop plants worldwide. Genome Characteristics. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PHYTOPLASMA ASSOCIATED WITH ALMOND BROWN LINE DISEASE AND DEVELOPMENT OF A MOLECULAR ASSAY FOR ITS DETECTION. Spatial patterns of phytoplasma-infected vines within vineyards have been investigated by several groups, and a clustered pattern of GY-infected plants has been observed (19, 103). Plant Protection 4 … Preview Buy Chapter 25,95 € Show next xx. Phytoplasma australasiae‟ that belongs to subgroup 16SrII-D. Phyto-eggplant phytoplasma 16S rDNA (GenBank accession no. While successful leaders may exhibit these 10 leadership skills to varying degrees, all good leaders leverage at least some — or most — of these characteristics. 2019 Sep 26;15(9):e1008035. Phytoplasma are phloem colonizing prokaryotes, which are morphologically resembling mycoplasmas was first shown in 1967. 0000023215 00000 n 0000023799 00000 n 0000220866 00000 n Get the latest research from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus. Many widely used medicinal plants still lack the extensive physiological characterization. 2019 Feb 26;(7):e32910. Similarly, if the… Aldaghi M, Kummert J, Roussel S, Jijakli MH. h�b```f``����� k� ̀ �@1v���. Among the 11 phytoplasma genomes included in this study, four have the complete chromosomal sequence available while the other seven are draft assemblies with varying levels of completeness (Table 1 and Figure 1). Phytoplasmas are associated with diseases in several hundreds of cultivated herbaceous and woody plants. Both phytoplasma diseases disturb the tree growth leading to malformation. 2020 Aug 7;9(8):642. doi: 10.3390/pathogens9080642. 2, Neculai Munteanu. Culture is a learned behavior that is transmitted from one member of society to another. In this paper molecular, biological and epidemiological characteristics of phytoplasma associated with important diseases worldwide are described. Characteristics of sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma transmission by the leafhopper ... (SCWL) phytoplasma that significantly affects the sugarcane crop in Asia. 0000003370 00000 n Phytoplasmas cause multiple infections in various crop species comprising vegetables, cereals, fruits as well as trees (Lee et al., 2000). 0000004226 00000 n eCollection 2019. RESEARCH ARTICLE Detection and molecular characterization of phytoplasmas associated with vegetable and alfalfa crops in Qassim region Ayman F. Omara,b aDepartment of Plant Pathology, Plant Pathology and Biotechnology Lab., Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafrelsheikh, Egypt; bDepartment of Plant Production and Protection, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, … 0000242497 00000 n Now a certain amount of knowledge is available that allow starting epidemiological studies in order to prevent further spreading of phytoplasma-associated diseases. Together, they make up the backbone of leadership across … The leafhopper Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus (Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) is the most important vector of sugarcane white leaf (SCWL) phytoplasma that significantly affects the sugarcane crop in Asia. (1967) Habitat Phloem sieve, gut, haemolymph of sapsucking insects Tsai et al. 0000333902 00000 n Phytoplasma associated diseases are spread worldwide, and in several cases are associated with severe epidemic of very often quarantine importance. Phytoplasma infected samples of blackgram, greengram, pigeonpea, chickpea, cowpea and fieldbean were collected from Chittoor and Kurnool districts. Start studying Seven characteristics of ecotourism. 0000006751 00000 n Results represent the first report of a new phytoplasma 16SrI subgroup infecting peach in Canada, and provide a valuable tool for further epidemiological studies on this phytoplasma in peach. 400 0 obj <> endobj  |  Phytoplasma’ and several ‘Ca. Development and Validation of a New TaqMan Real-Time PCR for Detection of ', Detection, characterization and evolutionary aspects of S54LP of SP (SAP54 Like Protein of Sesame Phyllody): a phytoplasma effector molecule associated with phyllody development in sesame (. Metrics details. trailer 9 Citations. 0000013022 00000 n Putting It Together: The Characteristics of a Good Leader. (Buch (kartoniert)) - portofrei bei eBook.de Phytoplasma ulmi’, the causal agent of elm yellows. PLoS Pathog. Phytoplasmas: historical Pleomorphic cells observed in ultra-thin section of leaves of mulberry infected with dwarf disease (Doi et al.,1967) These bodies disappear after tetracycline treatment when seen in EM (Ishiie et al.,1967) Called as MLOs (Mycoplasma Like … 2002;86:676-81. 0000006637 00000 n In this paper molecular, biological and epidemiological characteristics of phytoplasma associated … The phytoplasma genome has a very low G + C content in the range of 25- 30% (the average for other organisms is 50%). Transgenic expression of TENGU in Arabidopsisplants indu… doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1008035. Culture is learned . 0000023242 00000 n Leaf rolling and discoloration on single branches develop rapidly into leaf chlorosis. Pages 161-200. characteristic phytoplasma symptoms by man y investigators (EL-Banna et al., 2007; Rita and . 1. DNA from plant sample was isolated following CTAB method. Preview Buy Chapter 25,95 € Host Metabolic Interaction and Perspectives in Phytoplasma Research. 0000117176 00000 n Multilocus Genetic Characterization of Phytoplasmas. Annu Rev Microbiol. Till date, no authentic compilation is available to know the progress of phytoplasmas characterization major crops all over the world. Agricultural Research Service/USDA Project Status. Pages 201-226. Progress 10/01/04 to 09/30/07 Outputs OUTPUTS: The phytoplasma infecting watercress in Hawaii was characterized as a strain of the Aster Yellows phytoplasma (a strain of Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris) based upon sequence analysis of cloned 16S/SR/23S ribosomal DNA genes, the ribosomal protein associated (Rp) gene, and the elongation factor Tu (Tuf) gene that have been … 0000031728 00000 n Here, we aimed to study the characteristics of SCWL phytoplasma transmission by M. hiroglyphicus. In Table 1, some characteristics of the phytoplasma genomes are compared with those of the closely related mycoplasmas, some spiroplasmas and E. coli.Here, we refer only to three spiroplasma species (Spiroplasma kunkelii, Spiroplasma citri and Spiroplasma phoeniceum) that share with phytoplasmas the host shift between plants and insects, and also parasitize the phloem. Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Pecher P, Moro G, Canale MC, Capdevielle S, Singh A, MacLean A, Sugio A, Kuo CH, Lopes JRS, Hogenhout SA. 2019 Jun 26;20(1):526. doi: 10.1186/s12864-019-5908-6. Abstract The distribution and natural phytoplasma infection of Cacopsylla picta were investigated during a long-term field survey between 2002 and 2009 in commercial and abandoned apple proliferation-infected orchards throughout Germany, northern Switzerland, and eastern France. 0000333056 00000 n Flavescence dorée phytoplasmas (FDp, 16SrV-C and -D) are plant pathogenic non-cultivable bacteria associated with a severe grapevine disease. �^FY�x��V0�0�>�z��8c�-��0�bjli`w����y��{��R� ?x'����Ƨ�pzF�9 �Ly��t��0/5-``cY������q -Ao���2�{��9(50�`��������A��ÁE����K �+�]�|j�*0�V�B����H2�N�Ҍ@tH1�N �L@�ĺ��{�4�� -��>��Αlj���j9�����h��'ثY� ����u���� � 0421941 Grant No. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. A plant genotype can be recovered through meristematic tissue culture, but once infected, a plant will not produce well or have marketable bud. Phytoplasmas are obligate parasite, affecting a number of different plant species globally. 0000024891 00000 n phytoplasma was therefore assigned as a member of a new 16SrI subgroup (16SrI-W). This disease was caused by an uncultivated bacterium in the genus “Candidatus phytoplasma.” In subsequent years, this bacterium was linked to other plant diseases and caused losses in agriculture. The focus of this research was molecular characterization of ‘Ca. 2002;86:676-81. Pathogens. Table of Contents No Processes for Gaining Consensus or Resolving Conflicts Team Members who Lack a Commitment to the Goal Lack of Camaraderie Lack of Openness and Trust Vague Role Definitions No Commonality or Cohesiveness Conformity and Mind Protection … Detection and characterization of a lethal yellowing (16SrIV) group phytoplasma in Canary Island date palms affected by lethal decline in Texas. Phytoplasma cynodontis’ (subgroup 16SrXIV), predominantly infects only C. dactylon and B. brizantha wild grass types while ‘Ca Phytoplasma oryzae’ (subgroup 16SrXI), is broad spectrum and infects a large number of wild grasses, most importantly; P. maximum , D. 2007 Jan 1;12:1353-75. doi: 10.2741/2153. Keywords: ESFY, phytoplasma, characterization, tuf gene, insect vector Introduction ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum’ (16Sr X-B subgroup), the causal agent of the European Stone Fruit Yellows (ESFY) syndrome, is spreading in all Italian stone fruit growing areas. In the first quarter century following the discovery of phytoplasmas, their tiny cell size and the … Characteristics of the spread of apple proliferation by its vector Cacopsylla picta. 400 65 0000199374 00000 n A molecular investigation to identify phytoplasmas associated with fruit trees. 0000002583 00000 n Phytoplasmas, a large group of plant-pathogenic, phloem-inhabiting bacteria were discovered by Japanese scientists in 1967. Candidatus phytoplasma description Character Description Refrence Morphology Single unit membrane, pleomorphic Doi et al. 0000023884 00000 n The present study was carried out for molecular characterization phytoplasmas infecting pulses and studies on their detection and host range. (N/A) Project No. ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni’, a novel taxon associated with X-disease of stone fruits, Prunus spp. In this case, additional unique biological properties such as antibody specificity, host range and vector transmission specificity as well as other molecular criteria (gene) need to be included for speciation (Seemüller and Schneider, 2004). The application of nested-PCR assays using R16F2n/R2 and … Definition of phytoplasma : any of a group of bacteria that are related to mycoplasmas, cause plant diseases (such as aster yellows or elm yellows) by infecting phloem tissue, and are transmitted especially by homopteran insect vectors Phytoplasma trifolii‟. Now a certain amount of knowledge is available that allow starting epidemiological studies in order to prevent further spreading of phytoplasma-associated diseases. Accession No. 0000001628 00000 n 122 Molecular characterization of `Candidatus Phytoplasma mali` and `Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri` strains from Romania C. Chireceanu, M. Cieślińska 130 Fruit tree phytoplasmas and their possible insect vectors in TurkeyK. In contrast to its first description as a novel phytoplasma taxon (Lee et al., 2004b), ‘Ca. 0000023103 00000 n Phytoplasmas (‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’), first known as mycoplasma-like organisms, are wall-less, insect vectored bacteria that cause disease in more than a thousand different plant hosts, affecting weedy, ornamental and crop plants worldwide. The possibility to design specific primers for highly conserved genes such as 16S ribosomal gene together with the use of molecular probes randomly cloned from phytoplasma genome, allowed discriminating and molecularly classifying them. endstream endobj 401 0 obj <>/Metadata 53 0 R/Names 402 0 R/Outlines 32 0 R/PageLabels 50 0 R/Pages 52 0 R/StructTreeRoot 55 0 R/Type/Catalog/ViewerPreferences<>>> endobj 402 0 obj <> endobj 403 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC/ImageI]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 6/TrimBox[0.0 0.0 595.276 841.89]/Type/Page>> endobj 404 0 obj [405 0 R 406 0 R 407 0 R] endobj 405 0 obj <>/Border[0 0 0]/H/N/Rect[66.9971 727.208 156.643 719.133]/StructParent 9/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>> endobj 406 0 obj <>/Border[0 0 0]/H/N/Rect[438.896 802.39 555.5 765.803]/StructParent 7/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>> endobj 407 0 obj <>/Border[0 0 0]/H/N/Rect[39.5 802.39 272.6 757.092]/StructParent 8/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>> endobj 408 0 obj <>stream

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