catla fish growth period

Taxonomy [ edit ] The catla was formerly listed as the only species in the genus Catla , … & Singh, W.J. The maximum average length gain of 357.89±3.08% were observed in T1. The daily average calcium hardness and magnesium hardness ranged between values of 14-14.9 and 17.9-18.91 mg l-1 respectively. Considering this situation, it is necessary to concentrate on harvesting rain water which can be used for producing of freshwater fish seeds. Comparative evaluation of growth and survival of Indian major carps and exotic carps in raising fingerlings. The average ammonia-nitrogen, nitrite-nitrogen and nitrate-nitrogen (mg l-1) ranged between values of 0.003-0.05, 0.002-0.005 and 0.20-0.42 mg l-1 during experimental period. Konkan Agricultural University), Ratnagiri, M.S., India, Pin-415629. 6,8,10 and 12 spawn l-1 in harvested rain water in cement tanks. Manually operated dragnets are the most commonly used gear for harvesting carps. in the fry stage. The larvae begin to … INTRODUCTION In general, growth of a fish is Mixed plankton culture was maintained by adding inoculum obtained from Bhairi Temple Lake, nearby to the experimental station, to the harvested rain water. Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai, India. The nursery-raised fry of 20-25 mm are further reared for 2-3 months to 80-100 mm (6-10 g) fingerlings in earthen ponds of 0.05-0.2 ha. Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, India. Furthermore, the compatibility of catla in polyculture systems with regard to habitat preference and feeding habits is good. Sustainable freshwater aquaculture in India.In: T. J. Pandian (ed. Three-day old larvae, measuring about 6 mm, are reared for 15-20 days in small earthen nursery ponds of 0.02-0.1 ha, during which they reach 20-25 mm. Shrimp and carp aquaculture and the environment. Breeding in stagnant water bodies such as pond, is also possible. CIFA. At the time of sampling, 75 fishes from each experimental tank were randomly collected for recording the length and weight of fishes. Incorporation of soybean oil (2.7 percent) and fish oil (0.3 percent) in the diet of brood female catla (3.0 – 5.5 kg) for a period of 93 days results in improved reproductive performance such as advanced maturation, increased fecundity and significantly higher fertilization rates of eggs (Nandi et al., 2001). Significantly the observation was that the survival of fry was found to be decreased with increasing stocking density. Except for icing for transport, post-harvest processing is almost non-existent. 2004. The experimental tanks were cleaned daily with the soft scrubber and siphoning of uneaten feed and fecal matter was performed after feeding. 1968. B. P. Bhoye1, B. R. Chavan1*, V. R. Sadavarte1, H. B. Dhamagaye1 , M. T. Kamble2, B. T. Sawant1. Jena, J.K., Aravindakshan, P.K., Chandra, S., Muduli, H.K. Observations on the water quality revealed that the dissolved oxygen value decreased with an increased stocking density. ), Proceedings of the workshop on carp seed production technology, pp. Nakanishi M., Nakano S., Tezuka Y., Studies on the occurrence of. Survival rates normally range from 30 to 40 percent; however, survival often remains low due to improper management. catla fish benefits, catla fish growth period, catla fish in hindi, catla fish price, catla fish eggs, catla fish farming profit, catla catla characters, big catla fish, big catla fish catching, Induced breeding of catla has been catering for almost the entire seed requirement in all the countries where it is cultured, although riverine collection still forms the seed source in certain small areas. Sahu P.K., Jena K., Das P.C., Nursery reaing of Kalbasu. Catla is endemic to the riverine system in northern India, Indus plain and adjoining hills of Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Myanmar, and has been introduced later into almost all riverine systems, reservoirs and tanks all over India. Treatment: Drown the fish into formalin solution@0.02% for 7-10 days for 1 hour. Greyish on back and flanks, silvery-white below; fins dusky. Effect of live feed on the survival and growth of fry of Catla catla using three different live feeds namely, Cyclopoid (Thermocyclops decipiens), Cladoceran (Moina micrura), and mixed diet (Cyclopoid and Cladoceran) were studied. Talwar, P.K. Shrimp and carp aquaculture and the environment. Water quality parameters viz., temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) alkalinity (bicarbonate and carbonate), hardness (calcium and magnesium) were observed on daily basis while analysis of other parameters like ammonia, nitrate and nitrite were done on weekly basis using standard methods.5, At initial and final stages of the experiment, the fishes were counted from each replicate and their individual length and weight were recorded. The natural distribution of catla seems to be governed by temperature dependency rather than latitude and longitude. However, the tendency of farmers to increase income per unit area has led to an excessive use of fertilizers, proteinaceous feeds and chemicals that may have detrimental effects on the environment. All the fish species of 150 days age showed significantly (p<0.05) negative growth in terms of weight, fork length and total length. Swain et al (1999) [13] studied the growth and survival of catla spawn in various stocking densities fed on a dry artificial diet. 1998b. The commercial farming of catla fish is very high due to its fast growth and market demand. The present study was conducted at Wada Mirya finfish and shellfish hatchery of Marine Biological Research Station, at Latitude 17o.00’.57”.2 4N and Longitude 73o.16’.50”.4 7E, (Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Agricultural University), Ratnagiri, Maharashtra, India. Rain water harvesting can be achieved by using predesigned catchment areas to increase the efficiency of runoff and maximize the amount of collected rainfall.13 The fate of millions of rain-fed farms is greatly improved by adopting the effective rainwater conservation and management practices.14 Water quality influences health, survival, growth and production of fishes.15 The temperature of the green water system with harvested rain water in the experimental cement tanks ranged from 22.5 to 23.3 oC in all the treatments during experimental period. Miao S., Growth and survival model of red tail shrimp. In: Regional Study and Workshop on Aquaculture sustainability and the Environment. While carp pituitary extract has been the common inducing agent used since the development of the induced breeding technology, several synthetic commercial formulations of purified salmon gonadotropin and dopamine antagonist such as Ovaprim, Ovatide and Wova-FH have also been successfully used in recent years. ... growth of cultured fish species (Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala) and production potential. Introduction. Ltd., New Delhi, India. [Draft report]. & Nayak, P.K. Whereas T4 showed the minimum average length gain of 240.68±4.68%, which showed significantly different (P<0.05) among all the treatments of stocking densities. Martin J. M., Rakoy J. E., Milliam M. C., Green water tank culture of Tilapia, Proceedings of the 50. In waterbodies where multiple stocking and multiple harvesting are practised, the harvesting of larger sized fish (over 500 g) is usually initiated after 6-7 months of culture, while the smaller ones are returned to the pond for further growth. However, increased emphasis on intensification for enhancing production in recent years has resulted in increased use of chemical fertilizers, feeds, therapeutics, drugs, chemicals, etc., which pose some concern. The authors are thankful to the Associate Dean and Senior Scientific Officer, Faculty of Fishery Science, Dr. B.S. In: Regional Study and Workshop on Aquaculture Sustainability and the Environment. Catla fry are reared along with rohu and mrigala in equal proportions at combined densities of 0.2-0.3 million fry/ha. 1995. The slurry comprising of ground nut oil cake (GNOC) and rice bran (RB) (1:1) at the rate of 0.015 mg fry-1 day-1 for first three days before the stocking of fish seed to grow and multiply natural live feed.9 Aeration pipes were arranged in the culture tank to keep the culture afloat, in outdoor cultures. Pond fertilization with both organic and inorganic fertilizers, and supplementary feeding with the conventional mixture of rice bran and oil cake are the norm; however, the dosage and form of application vary with the farming intensity and inherent pond productivity. The physical, biological and chemical characteristics of water quality are which determines aquaculture operations. The water quality parameters observed were recorded during the experiment (Table 1, Figure 2), The average initial length, final length and length gain (%),average initial weight, final weight and weight gain, average specific growth rate (SGR) and survival of Catla catla spawn stocked at four different densities, i.e. Locally-produced fresh fish fetches about one and half times higher market price than iced-fish. ... Freshwater aquaculture involves the breeding of freshwater fish like carp, catla, rohu, mrigal, freshwater prawn, freshwater pearl culture and ornamental fish farming. When synthetic formulations are used, a single dose of 0.4-0.5 ml/kg BW (females) or 0.2-0.3 ml/kg (males) is administered. The overall results of this study indicated that green water system with harvested rain water has a potential for rearing fish seeds. The low dissolved oxygen results in water quality changes play an important role in affecting growth and survival of fish.18. The Freshwater Fishes of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Burma and Sri Lanka. [Draft report]. Thane, Maharashtra [Draft report]. Gupta, S.D., Rath, S.C., Dasgupta, S.D. fingerlings reared in crowded conditions for over one year, and 150-300 g in size) are used as the stocking material and the average size of catla harvested is 1.5-2.0 kg. Genus: Catla Species: Catla Catla fish is the one of the popular fresh water fishes grown throughout india and identified as a indian carp. Whereas, the value of ammonia-nitrogen, nitrite-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen increased with the increase in the stocking density. Carps. In: Regional Study and Workshop on Aquaculture sustainability and the Environment. Fish and Fisheries of India. 99 pp. Jhingran, V.G. Breeding of Rohu: Generally, Rohu fish attains maturity at three years of age. Being a low input-based system, carp culture has not generally been perceived as a threat to the environment. Because catla fish is one of the very popular freshwater fish species which is raised throughout India, Bangladesh and some other South Asian countries.. Aquaculture Living resources, 2 81-89 (1989). Ayyappan, S. & Jena, J.N. [Draft report]. The present study was made to assess the effects of dietary Citrus sinensis peel extract on the growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, muscle biochemical compositions, profiles of fatty acid and amino acid, and metabolic enzyme status of the freshwater fish Catla catla. 2AARM, SERD, Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani-12120, Thailand, Corresponding author Email: brc15672@gmail.com, DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.12944/CARJ.5.1.08. Catla and rohu fetch similar market prices, which are usually 10-20 percent higher than those for mrigal. Success in the induced breeding of the species in 1957 assured subsequent seed supply, thus revolutionising this form of polyculture in India and other south-east Asian countries. Catla are marketed mostly in local markets, where they are sold fresh. The average growth curve and subsequent prediction of growth were computed by using an SAS programme (Statistical Analysis System, SAS Institute). The maximum and minimum average length gain, weight gain, specific growth rate, survival values were 357.89±3.08%, 779.53±18.03%, 5.56±0.08%, 45.20±0.13% and 240.68 ±4.68%,512.70±20.87%,4.62±0.09%.26.50±0.07 % in T1 and T4 respectively. The fish, after conditioning, were oxygen packed in tins and brought to the lab. This poor breeding response, coupled with a relatively shorter spawning season, results in an inadequate production of hatchery-reared seed, which often fails to cover the entire needs of the farmers in several regions. Zooplankton samples were preserved first in procaine and then in 4% formalin before identification. The compatibility of catla in polyculture systems with other carps has already been established. Figure 3: Variation of ammonia-nitrogen, nitrite-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen (mg  l-1) in green water system with, Standard error of the average length, weight, SGR and survival of the fry of catla for each replicate were calculated. The maximum average weight gain of 779.53±18.03% was observed in T1. The maximum survival of (45.20±0.1250%) was found at low stocking density of 6 spawn l-1. Its higher growth rate and compatibility with other major carps, specific surface feeding habit, and consumer preference have increased its popularity in carp polyculture systems among the fish farmers in India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Laos, Pakistan and Thailand. In this study, it was observed that rearing of Catla catla spawn to fry stage at low stocking density showed significantly high growth rate in terms of length gain, weight gain and specific growth rate. Fisheries can be wild or farmed. Volume 1. Condition factor of control fish reveals that weight gain was maximum in relation to length of fish as compared to fish kept under … The Catla catla, (T1:6 spawn l-1, T2:8 spawn l-1, T3:10 spawn l-1 and T4:12 spawn l-1). 83-133. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nationsfor a world without hunger. Grow-out production of carps in India. Body bilaterally symmetrical, moderately elongate, its dorsal profile more arched than the ventral profile; body with cycloid scales, head without scale; snout fairly depressed, projecting beyond mouth, without lateral lobe; eyes dorsolateral in position, not visible from outside of head; mouth small and inferior; lips … Gopakumar, K., Ayyappan, S., Jena, J.K., Sahoo, S.K., Sarkar, S.K., Satapathy, B.B. The total catchment area of the roof was 432 m2. The water quality parameters were found to be within an optimum range during the spawn to fry stage rearing period of 16 days in green water system with harvested rain water in cement tank. Local names of catla fish in India: … FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. All rights reserved. used (Basu, 1999) [1] to analyze length growth data of Catla catla (Ham.) Feeding experiments were carried out in 100 L tanks for 40 days. The marketing of this species mostly relies on domestic markets, where it is sold fresh. 49-52. Catla is a eurythermal species that grows best at water temperatures between 25-32 °C. Hormonal stimulation for induced breeding often gives poor result in catla, compared to other major Indian carps. Jena, J.K., Aravindakshan, P.K. Application of the principles of Article 9 of the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries would be appropriate. 578. Manila, Asian Development Bank and Bangkok, Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific. Thus, farmers often resort to harvesting this species only at the end of the culture period instead of during intermittent harvesting. An experiment was conducted to determine the growth performance of Catla catla fingerlings during 90-day sub-lethal copper (Cu) exposure. Catla attains sexual maturity at an average age of two years and an average weight of 2 kg. The survival level of catla in nursery ponds is normally lower than that for rohu and mrigal. Huang W.B and Chiu T.S., Effect of stocking density on survival, growth,  size variation, and production of Tilapia fry, Aquaculture Research, 28:165-173 (1997). To meet diverse requirements of our clients in the best possible manner, we are offering a comprehensive Catla Fish at very reasonable price. & Jhingran, A.G. 1991. A comparative study of growth rate of rohu - mrigal and mrigal - rohu hybrids and their parental species. Jayaram, K.C. 475 pp. In general, carp are low-valued species fetching market prices of less than USD 1/kg at the producers' level; therefore, the use of major inputs such as seed, fertilizers and supplementary feed, besides labour costs, is kept to a minimum. The marginal increase in calcium hardness and magnesium hardness were observed during culture period  and the values were within the acceptable limit. Water Research, 7:987-993 (1973). 1995. Ethics Statement Differences were considered significant at an alpha level of 0.05, Student’s Newman Keul multiple range tests was used to determine the significant difference between the treatments, Water quality of green water system with harvested rain water. Early-stage larvae remain in surface and sub-surface waters and are strongly phototactic. 1981. In the six-species composite system with rohu, mrigal, common carp, grass carp and silver carp, catla shares the upper feeding niche of the pond with silver carp. Handbook of Zoological Survey of India, Volume 2. In fish farms, however, they can reach more than 1 kg during the first year. T1 (6 Spawn l-1), T2 (8 spawn l-1), T3 (10 spawn l-1), and T4 (12 spawn l-1) are depicted in Figure 3. Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala, were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of manganese for 30 days. Curr Agri Res 2017;5(1). Cast nets are another important gear frequently used for partial harvesting of fish in small and backyard ponds. As the species breeds in the riverine ecosystem, its ready seed availability has helped in establishing its aquaculture in the peripheral region of the riverine system in these countries. Daily green water with mixed planktons was added in the experimental tank at the rate of 5% through daily exchange of 5% water from each experimental tank. Uses. Fish fry appeared healthy at the end of experimental trials with survival ranging from 26.50±0.07to 45.20±0.13%, which are significantly different among all the treatments of fish while there were a number of mortalities unrelated to diet. Mahuva oil cake 2500 kilograms per one hectare is used to kill the fish. The stocking density of spawn Catla catla at the rate of 6 no l-1 achieved better growth and survival in green water system with harvested rain water in cement tank and there was no significant changes on water quality parameters. Consumers generally prefer catla to be large 1-2 kg. Feeding and feed management of Indian major carps in Andhra Pradesh, India. Singh, D.M. On the basis of qualitative and quantitative analysis of gut contents, Catla catla has been categorised as planktivorous. Fish were fed to apparent satiation (about 10% body weight), 6 d/wk, twice daily at 0800 and 1600 h for 6 wk. Nursery rearing of Indian major carp fry under different stocking densities. Annual Report Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture. Sharama J.G., Chakrabarti R., Effect of different stocking densities on survival and growth of Grass Carp. The green water system containing live phytoplankton viz., Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta and zooplankton viz., Rotifera, Cladocera, Copepoda and Protozoa were was used. They were slowly released into cement tanks, half filled with bore water and seasoned over night. 1995. Governmental regulation and control over the domestic marketing system for these aquaculture products are almost non-existent; thus the market price is influenced mainly by demand and supply. Catla is a eurythermal species that grows best at water temperatures between 25-32 °C. from Lake Pichhola, Udaipur, Rajasthan”. Long-distance transport of these ice-packed fish in insulated vans is a common practice in countries like India, where catla are even transported over 3000 km by road to fish-deficit regions. In addition to live food, slurry of  GNOC and RB in the ratio of 1:1 at the rate of 0.015 mg fry-1 day-1 for first 0-14 days.9 GNOC and RB slurry were fed twice in a day during morning and evening. At the end of the experiment, the survived fishes from each experimental tank were counted which provided the observation of survival rate of fishes. National Freshwater Aquaculture Development Plan.CIFA, Bhubaneswar, India, 75 pp. A fishery is an area with an associated fish or aquatic population which is harvested for its commercial or recreational value. & Tripathi, S.D. The collection of riverine seed was the only source for culture until the 1950s. Biosystems Engineering 93:475-489 (2006). Available from: http://www.agriculturejournal.org/?p=2255, Freshwater fish culture a promising enterprise was gradually realized, non-availability of quality of fish seed and lack of scientific culture constrains the development of carp farming.1 Presently, freshwater fish culture is gaining importance in the state of Maharashtra in India.2 It has been observed farmers the state are taking keen interest to practice freshwater aquaculture. Fingerlings of three major carps viz. Manila, Asian Development Bank & Bangkok, Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific. In the three-species system in India the proportion of catla stocked is usually kept at 30-35 percent, while in six-species culture it forms 15-20 percent. Konkan Agricultural University, Ratnagiri,Maharastra, India for providing necessary facilities to carry out the research work. The similar results were found of Oreochromis niloticus22 by using fiber glass aquaria with recirculatory system; Catla catla and Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo rohita18 using glass aquaria; Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala and Cyprinus carpio23 in rain fed medium ecosystem. They generally reach maturity at their 3-5 years of age. Pakistan Study Report. (ed) A manual of methods for measuring primary production in aquatic environments, Blackwell Scientific Publications (1969). Synopsis of Biological Data on Rohu, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton, 1822). The fish are also transported in insulated vans with ice to fish-deficit areas of even 2 000-3 000 km distance from the production site. Samuel M.P., Satapathy K.K., Concerted rainwater harvesting technologies suitable for hilly agro-ecosystems of Northeast India, Current Science, 95:1130-1132 (2008). At present, catla forms an integral component species, both in three-species polyculture with rohu (. National Academy of Agricultural Sciences, New Delhi, India. Radhakrishnan (eds. The application of soap-oil emulsion, or repeated netting with a suitable mesh size, is used to eradicate aquatic insects before stocking. Inland Fishes of India and Adjacent Countries. The study showed that better growth and survival of Catla catla spawn to fry stage with stocking density of 6 spawn l-1 reared for a period of16 days in cement tank. Journal Metrics. Development of processing and value-added products. & Ayyappan, S. 1998a. Body short and deep, somewhat laterally compressed, its depth more than head length; head very large, its depth exceeding half the head length; body with conspicuously large cycloid scales, head devoid of scales; snout bluntly rounded; eyes large and visible from underside of the head; mouth wide and upturned with prominent protruding lower jaw; upper lip absent, lower lip very thick; no barbels; lower jaw with a movable articulation at symphysis, without a prominent process; gill rakers long and fine; pharyngeal teeth in three row, 5.3.2/2.3.5 pattern; dorsal fin inserted slightly in advance of pelvic fins, with 14 to 16 branched rays, the simple rays non-osseous; anal fin short; pectoral fins long extending to pelvic fins; caudal fin forked; lateral line with 40 to 43 scales. Pillay T.V.R., Kutty M.N., Aquaculture Principles and Practices, 4. Moderate-sized fish of 1-2 kg are preferred because the taste declines as they get larger, due to their coarse texture. Myanmar Study Report. • Black spot disease: Small spots of black color are seen on the body. & Varghese, T.J. 1980. The rain water falling on the roof of hatchery building was collected in cement tank through (U shaped) roof gutters attached to the edges of building roof (Figure 1). Road Thane, West Mumbai, Thane West, Thane - 400607, Dist. On an average, a female catla fish contains about 2 to 3 million eggs. The experiment was conducted up to 16 days for the spawn to attain the fry stage. In experiment, the five days old healthy spawn of Catla catla having average length 5.50±0.04 mm and average weight of 10.99±0.30 mg were stocked at four different stocking densities viz. Rohu do not grow as rapidly as catla or the Chinese major carp, attaining around 500–1000 g in the first year under good farm conditions. The outdoor rectangular cement tanks having dimensions of 5 m×1.5 m×1.5 m (two tanks) and two small size tanks having dimension 2m×1m×1m were used for development of green water system separately. Choudhury, S.N. Allometric growth is positive when b>1 and negative when b<1 (Snik et al., 1997). The daily average carbonate alkalinity and bicarbonate alkalinity (mg l-1 as CaCO3) ranged between values of 16.15-16.91 and 18.1-18.9 mg l-1 as CaCO3 during experimental period. Green water system, in which green algae consisting of planktons are allowed to grow and make available natural microscopic food to the fish larvae.6 Green water tank culture of tilapia is an appropriate method for producing commercial level of tilapia, as phytoplankton and other small microscopic organism available within the water column are grazed on by tilapia and it helps to recycling waste nutrients and lowering feed conversion ratios.7 Green water system provides plankton feeds to fish, shrimp and shellfish in the world’s most widespread and sustainable aquaculture approach.8. Sampling was carried out at an interval of seven days to observe the growth of fishes. Treatment: Drown the fish into picric acid solution@0.003% for 1 hour. Breeding in Catla Fish Farming:-Generally, catla fish comes to maturity level at the age of 3 to 4 years. Manila, Asian Development Bank & Bangkok, Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific. Saraceni C. and  Ruggiu D., Techniques for sampling water and phytoplankton, In: Vollenweider R. A. In the experiment of harvested rain water the dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, carbonate alkalinity, bicarbonate alkalinity, ammonia-nitrogen, nitrite-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen ranged from values of  4.24-4.43 mg l-1, 22.5-23.3 0C, 7.4-7.8, 14-14.9 mg l-1 as CaCO3, 17.9-18.91 mg l-1 as CaCO3, 16.15-16.9 mg l-1 as CaCO3, 18.1-18.9 mg l-1 as CaCO3, 0.003-0.05 mg l-1, 0.002-0.005 mg l-1, 0.20-0.42 mg l-1 respectively. Applied Ichthyololy, 20:123-127 (2004). During the experiment pH increased from acidic to alkaline in harvested rain water and faster growth of Catla catla spawn to fry was observed. 541 pp. Veterinarski Arhiv, 65(5):143-148. Shrimp and carp aquaculture and the environment. The increased values of ammonia with the increase in the stocking density were reported by.17 Ammonia less than 0.05 mg l-1 as NH3-N, nitrite less than 0.02 mg l-1 as NO2-N and nitrate less than 50 mg l-1as NO2-N are found to be optimal for most of the freshwater fishes.20 The water provided was of good quality throughout the experimental period water quality has a complex side effect on high stocking density.21. Reviewing the literature it was observed that there is limited information on the direct use of harvested rain water for fish seed production. Indian major carp, Catla catla from Daya reservoir, Udaipur. The use of catla as a component in pond culture was a traditional practice in the eastern Indian states, spreading to all other Indian states only during the second half of the 20th century. Data obtained from the experiment for growth parameters and survival was analyzed by one way ANOVA. Swain S.K., Sarangi N., Ayyapan S., Ornamental Fish Farming, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, India, 141(2010). Submission Flow The growth of mrigal is poorer than that of catla or rohu. In large commercial farms where the harvest is considerable, fish, after washing thoroughly in water, are packed with crushed ice at 1:1 ratio in rectangular plastic crates (usually 60 cm x 40 cm x 23 cm in size). In Bangladesh, though the three Indian major carps form the principal component species in polyculture systems, silver carp, grass carp, common carp, orange-fin labeo (. Improvements in induced breeding and seed production, which have removed the reliance on the capture of natural riverine seed. • Argulosis: The symptoms are slow growth… Normally, the grow-out period is one year, during which it grows to about 1.0 kg. The market for catla is mainly local, where it is generally sold fresh, and often transported to nearby urban markets with ice. In: P. Keshavanath & K.V. The bolting silk of 40 um mesh size bag were fitted to PVC pipe to filter the harvested rain water. The overall survival in these fingerling rearing systems ranges from 60 to 70 percent. April to July is the best period for laying of eggs. Nepal Study Report. In many cases, however, farmers stock multiple carp species due to the non-availability of sufficient ponds for separate stocking. RESULTS In the development of catla hatchling to juvenile, 5 stages were identified: yolk sac larvae, pre-flexion larvae, flexion larvae, post flexion larvae and juveniles (Table.1). doi : http://dx.doi.org/10.12944/CARJ.5.1.08, Bhoye B. P, Chavan B. R, Sadavarte V. R, Dhamagaye H. B, Kamble M. T, Sawant B. T. Rearing of Freshwater Fish ‘Catla catla (Hamilton, 1822)’ Spawn to Fry in Green Water System with Harvested Rain Water in Cement Tanks. Rao's polynomial growth curve model has been successfully used to analyse length growth data of Catla catla (Ham) at the fry stage. J. Ammonia; Toxicity; Catla catla; Labeo bata; Cyprinus carpio; Oreochromis mossambica. On an average, a female catla fish contains about 2 to 3 million eggs. A first report on quadruple spawning of Catla catla (Ham.). 359 (1982). INTRODUCTION The fresh water fish, Catlacatla is one of the valuable Indian major carps that is being cultured exten- sively in polyculture or composite culture … The non-availability of commercial feed, forcing the farmers to resort to the conventional bran-oilcake mixture, is another limiting factor for the growth and survival of fry. Where F is the weight of food supplied to the fish during the study period, W0 is the weight of the fish at the beginning of the experimental period, and W1 is the weight of the fish at the end of the experiment. It is therefore necessary that the practicing countries should formulate guidelines and impose strict regulatory measures for the judicious use of these critical inputs. Neori A., Greenwater Aquaculture: The largest aquaculture sector in the World, World aquaculture, 26-30 (2013). Freshje Enterprises Thane West, Thane 1130/2, Dongripada, Near Buddha Mandir G. B. Somalingam, J., Maheshwari, U.K. & Langer, R.K. 1990. The growth in terms of Total Length (TL) of Catla larvae from Fingerlings of Catla catla of relatively same size ranging from (8 to10 cm) and weight about (5-8 gm) were collected from culture ponds of Bharath Fish Farm, Poondi, Thiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu. 1. Shrimp and carp aquaculture and the environment. Mohanty R.K., Verma H.N., Brahmanand P.S., Performance evaluation of rice-fish integration system in rain fed medium land ecosystem, Aquaculture. © 2020 Current Agriculture Research Journal. In certain areas, brick-lined or cement tanks are also used as nurseries. Mohanty R.K. and Mishra A., Successful rice-fish integrated farming adopting rainwater conservation measure, Fishing Chimes, 22:97-99 (2003). Where only catla are stocked, earthen nurseries are stocked at 3-10 million/ha and cement nurseries at 10-20 million/ha. Being a surface feeder that is highly preferred by consumer, catla forms an integral component in carp polyculture systems in all the countries where it is reared, including India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Laos and Myanmar. Body short and deep, somewhat laterally compressed, its depth more than head length; head very large, its depth exceeding half the head length; body with conspicuously large cycloid scales, head devoid of scales; snout bluntly rounded; eyes large and visible from underside of the head; mouth wide and upturn… In some cases antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals have been used in treatment but their inclusion in this table does not imply an FAO recommendation. It is concluded that, the green water system with harvested rain water would be the low cost alternative to production of freshwater fish seed for sustainable development of small scale freshwater fishery and to meet the demand for fish seeds. Other fish can be removed by sun drying of waterbed or by repeated netting. The daily average dissolved oxygen ranged between values of 4.24-4.43 mg l-1 during experimental period. The fork and total length increments were also negative for Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala. In: Regional Study and Workshop on Aquaculture sustainability and the Environment. Hindustan Publishing Corporation (India), Delhi, India. Ratnagiri District report on agriculture, Department of Agriculture, Government of Maharashtra, (2009). The Catla fish is bred and cultivated mainly for food. Open Access Policy Cultured Aquatic Species Information Programme, Main producer countries of Catla catla (FAO Fishery Statistics, 2006). In the present study growth and survival were reduced by increasing stocking density. The Konkan region of Maharashtra falls under high rainfall zone and large reservoirs area are available for culture based capture fish production. Legendre H, Saurin H., Adou C., Suitable of Brackish water tilapia species from the Ivore coast for lagoon aquaculture. The values were found to be in an optimal range and this might be due the use of harvested rain water containing calcium hardness and magnesium hardness. Similar observations were recorded related to growth Oreochromis niloticus fry by using cages in open pond water system,16 Ctenopharygodon idella15 by using reservoir water in aquaria. The eggs are demersal at first, gradually becoming buoyant. The similar result was found with 23-30 oC.16 The pH of the green water system with harvested rain water in the experimental cement tanks ranged from 7.4 to 7.8, in all the treatments. II growth and rearing method. Asian Fishery Society Indian Branch, Mangalore, India. Keywords. Ramakrishna, R., Shipton, T.A., Hasan, M.R.2013. The overall results of this study indicated that green water system with harvested rain water has a potential for rearing fish seeds. Key words: Aflatoxin B1, contaminated feed, growth, vital organs, Catla catla fry. Jhingran, V.G. whereas T4 showed the average weight gain of 512.70±20.87%, which showed significantly different (P<0.05) among all the treatments of stocking densities. The roof gutters were fitted to PVC pipe for collecting the harvested water in large cement storage tank. Eg. However, no study has been found on the nursery rearing of freshwater fish seed in green water system with harvested rain water in cement tank. Khoke, U.C. Rearing of Freshwater Fish ‘Catla catla (Hamilton, 1822)’ Spawn to Fry in Green Water System with Harvested Rain Water in Cement Tanks, Early Breeding and Seed Production of Indian Major Carps: Attributes of the Innovation from an Adaptive Trial, Effect of Different Varieties and Planting Time on Kharif Onion Production in Lower Shivalik Hills of Himachal Pradesh, Publication ethics and malpractice statement, Correction, Retraction, Withdrawal policies, http://www.agriculturejournal.org/?p=2255, Evaluation of Traditional and Modernized Pest Control Methods Used by Smallholder Farmers in Malawi, Exogenous Probiotics on Biofloc based Aquaculture: A Review, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. [Draft report], Pathak, S.C. & Palanisamy, K. 1995. Commercial feed (Sunder’s feed) was used as control. 2001. Material and Methods. 1995. were the most sensitive in terms of fish growth. Basavaraju, Y. The decrease in the dissolved oxygen with the increasing stocking density was reported and the results are comparable with17 and such a similar result was found in glass aquaria with re-circulatory system. The study showed that better growth and survival of Catla catla spawn to fry stage with stocking density of 6 spawn l-1 reared for a period of16 days in cement tank. Calcutta, India. Popularity of commercial catla fish farming is very high mainly due to it’s fast growth rate, great taste and nutrition and also high market demand. Manila, Asian Development Bank & Bangkok, Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific. The growth performance was highest in treatment 3 followed by treatment 4, treatment 1, The average value of length and weight were recorded for each treatment of the experiment for analysis of growth parameters, such as length gain, weight gain, and Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and survival (%) were calculated by using standard formulae.12, Figure 1: Rain water harvesting through (U Shape) gutter. ), Sustainable Indian Fisheries, pp. 32, FAO, Rome, Italy. Department of Agriculture. When pituitary extract is used, females are injected with a stimulating dose of 2-3 mg/kg BW followed by a second dose of 5 to 8 mg/kg after a lapse of 6 hours; males are given a single dose of 2-3 mg/kg at the time of second injection of the female. Growth performance of fish during manganese stress Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala showed negative weight increments of -0.22, -0.72 and -3.90g, respectively during the stress period of 30 days. In a two-species commercial carp production system practised in the Koleru lake region of Andhra Pradesh, the major carp producing region in India, stocked catla constitute 20-30 percent of the total, the rest being rohu. Commercial catla fish farming business is gaining popularity day by day. El-Sayed A.F.M., Effects of stocking density and feeding level on growth and feed efficiency of Nile tilapia. Scilit 1999. A powdered mixture of rice bran and oilcake is the common supplementary feed. Manila, Asian Development Bank & Bangkok, Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific. Spawn of Catla with an initial length 5.50±0.04 mm and weight 10.99±0.30 mg were stocked at the rate of 6, 8, 10 and 12 no.l-1 in cement tanks (2x1x1m). For this purpose, Catla catla fish, weighing approximately 230–235 g, were randomly divided into four groups and then exposed to acute doses of Cu (1.25 ppm), Cd (4.5 ppm), and their mixture (2.25 ppm) for 96 h and then 20, 30, and 40% respectively for a period of 30 days. Pre-stocking nursery pond preparation includes the removal of aquatic weeds and predatory fishes, followed by liming and fertilization with organic manures and inorganic fertilizers. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. The level of adoption of these practices varies from country to country, depending mainly on the resource availability and the economic status of the farmers. Journal of Aquaculture in the Tropics, 13:143-150. 1Faculty of Fishery Science, (Dr. B.S. In the Koleru lake area of Andhra Pradesh, the centre of commercial carp farming activity in India with a production water area of over 100 000 ha, the grow-out period extends up to 18 months. Catla catla; Spawn; Fry; Aquaculture; Chlorophyta; Rotifera; Rain water; Cement tank, Bhoye B. P, Chavan B. R, Sadavarte V. R, Dhamagaye H. B, Kamble M. T, Sawant B. T. Rearing of Freshwater Fish ‘Catla catla (Hamilton, 1822)’ Spawn to Fry in Green Water System with Harvested Rain Water in Cement Tanks. Similar observations were also found in glass aquaria15 and in outdoor concrete tank.12 However, the variation in the growth and survival between all the above mentioned studies and present study may be due to the variation in stocking density, feed composition and feed type in culture system. Improvements in feeding and health management. The present study aims to assess the possibility of fry production of freshwater fish, Catla catla using green water system with harvested rain water in cement tank. Fish growth rates differed significantly (P < 0.05) with CHO: L ratio in the diets. However, the major constraint is on the supply and access to quality freshwater fish seed.3 The Konkan region of Maharashtra falls under high rainfall zone, the pre-monsoon showers (March-May) accounts for 25% of annual rainfall, while bulk of the rainfall (67%) occurs during June-September, which constitutes the monsoon season 3-4 months.4. During the exposure period, all three fish species showed negative growth with weight increment values of -0.22, -0.72 and -3.90g, respectively. Mass production of intergeneric hybrid catla (Catla catla x Labeo rohita) and its growth in ponds, small and large reservoirs of Madhya Pradesh. Hayat, M. 1995. Boyd C. E. Water quality in warm water fish ponds, Auburn University, USA. Gastrosomatic indices were found to be higher during winter months as compared to summer. Water samples for phytoplankton (600 ml) were collected from three different points in the cement tank and fixed with Lugol’s solution 10 identified and counted using a hemocytometer under a microscope after overnight concentration to 0.2-0.4 ml.11 Zooplankton samples were collected using plankton net No.25 (67 µm mesh) from bottom to surface. The results of the study indicated that the maximum average length gain was (357.89±3.08%), weight gain (779.53±18.03%), specific growth rate (5.56±0.08%) and survival (45.20±0.13%) and were recorded significantly (P<0.05) at stocking density of 6 spawn l-1 as compared to the other stocking densities. Mohanty R.K., Density-dependent growth performance of Indian major carps in rainwater reservoirs. Shrimp and carp aquaculture and the environment.In: Bangladesh Study Report. The live mixed two group of phytoplankton viz., Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta were dominant, while four group of zooplankton viz., Rotifera, Cladocera (moina and daphnia), Copepoda and Protozoa also dominated in the green water system. The gut microbiota of catla fish in case of TSA agar media ranged from 1.1~2.5×105 to 3.3~7.2×106 CFU/mL and in case of MRS agar media 1.0~3.0×103 to 3.4~5.2×104 CFU/mL were estimated. Breeding Catla fish artificially is very difficult, because it requires precise environmental conditions for spawning. Rome, FAO. Marketable sized fish are usually harvested through repeated netting. Supplementary feed constitutes over 50 percent of the total input cost in carp polyculture; therefore, judicious feed management is of prime importance for enhancing profits. After the experimental period, there was a significant decrease in anaerobic bacteria and a significant colonization of candidate probiotics in guts of fish fed with flocculated algae‐enriched Artemia. The treatment 1. Indian Journal of Fisheries, 45(2): 163-168. It is the fastest growing species among the three Indian major carps. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. In short it can be concluded that effective water quality management is one of the important factor that contributes to the success of fish culture, and determines pond productivity.5 Though Konkan region falls under the high rainfall category, the major part of water is drained and mixed in sea water due to its topography. In extensive systems, with a targeted production level of 2-3 tonnes/ha, the cost of production is about USD 0.30/kg, while the costs increase to USD 0.5-0.6/kg in semi-intensive culture, where the targeted production is 4-8 tonnes/ha. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 14(3):388-395. The dissolved oxygen was found to decrease over the culture period in all the densities. However, low breeding response of catla has been experienced in several regions; this, together with the low survival of this species in the nursery stages compared to rohu and mrigal, sometimes leads to shortages in seed supply. Catla, the second most important species after rohu (mrigal is third), is used as the surface feeder component in Indian major carp polyculture systems. Statistical analysis of data showed that age of 150 days for Catla catla,Labeo rohitaandCirrhina mrigala. Thenohanellus catlae; Myxobolus bengalensis; M. catlae; M. hosadurgensis, Aeromonas hydrophila; A. sorbia; Aphanomyces invadans, Aquatic Animal Pathogen and Quarantine Information System - AAPQIS, Database on Introductions of Aquatic Species - DIAS, FAO FishStatJ – Universal software for fishery statistical time series, Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific - NACA, Eye, optic nerves and brain affected; cornea of eye vascularised & becomes opaque; subsequently eye ball gets putrefied, leading to death, Ulcerations; exophthalmia; abdominal distension, Destroy badly infected fish; disinfect affected ponds with 0.5 ppm solution of KMnO, Raised white plaques, often with reddish peripheral zone leading to haemorrhagic spots on body, Body scales stretch out resembling pine cone; inflammation; ulceration; exophthalmia; abdominal distension, Mould grows like cotton wool on body, penetrating into the muscle; morbid muscle rot, Fungus grows out through gill blood vessels and causes necrosis of surrounding tissues; yellow-brown discolouration & disintegration of gill tissues, Addition of quick lime (50-100 kg/ha) to affected ponds; in case of limited infections, use 3-5% NaCl bath for 5-10 minutes, or 5 ppm KMnO, Skin, fin rays & operculum covered with white spores; sick fish keep rubbing against hard substratum, Dip in 1:5 000 formalin solution for 1 hour for 7-10 days or in 2% NaCl for 7-10 days; affected ponds should be disinfected with quicklime at 200 kg/ha, Invasion of parasites in skin & gill region, 2-3% NaCl bath for 5-10 minutes or 4 ppm KMnO, Weakness; emaciation; raising of scales along their posterior margins; scale loss; perforation of scales; loss of chromatophores, Reduce density; add yeast to feed (1 g/kg); 2-3% NaCl bath, Gill, fin & skin affected; excessive mucus secretion, 3-5% NaCl dip treatment for 5-10 minutes; 100 ppm formalin bath; treat affected ponds with 25 ppm formalin or 4 ppm KMnO, Black nodules due to metacercarial cysts in the host body; infects eye and causes blindness, Parasites visible to naked eye attached to head & fin rays; haemorrhagic spots found in chronic cases, Drain and dry ponds showing severe Argulus infection; short duration 5 ppm KMnO, Large red or grey shallow ulcers with necrotic areas on skin; fungus extends deep into the musculature; lesions of acute dermatitis and ulcers, 200 kg/ha quicklime or 0.1 ppm CIFAX (a CIFA, India formulation). 1991. The optimum ranges of physico-chemical parameters of water for tropical fishes such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, free CO2, total alkalinity and total hardness were stated as 24-28oC, 7.5-7.8, 6.0-8.0 ppm, <5, 75-120 ppm as CaCO3 and 60-1000 ppm as CaCO3 respectively.19. The female Rohu lays 3 lakh eggs approximately. The present study deals with the “Age, Growth and Harvestable size of Catla catla (Ham.) The overall observations and results of this present study showed that underutilized rain water can be used for rearing freshwater fish seed by developing green water system in cemented tanks. The growth of spawn to fry was observed to decrease with increase in the stocking density. Sharama J.G., and Chakrabarti R., Role of stocking density on growth and survival of Catla. The minimum tolerance temperature limit is ~14 °C. Furthermore, when sold live, the market value increases over two-fold compared to iced fish. Regional Study and Workshop on Aquaculture Sustainability and the Environment. In this area, stunted juveniles (i.e. The present study on the effect of green water system with harvested rain water on growth performance of freshwater fish Catla catla. Standardized practice for grow-out in the carp polyculture system includes control of predatory and weed fish through the application of chemicals or plant derivatives; the stocking of fingerlings at a combined density of 4 000-10 000 fingerlings/ha; pond fertilization with organic manures such as cattle dung or poultry droppings and inorganic fertilizers; supplementary feeding with a mixture of rice/wheat bran and oil cake; and fish health monitoring and water management. Mount D.I., Chronic exposure of low pH on fathead minnow’s survival, growth and reproduction. During the first week of monsoon the roof was cleaned with rain water and then in second week of monsoon rain water was harvested and stored in three different rectangular cement tanks with a total storage capacity of 1, 50,000 l. As per the requirement, harvested rain water was taken into the experimental cement tank. Pandey P.K., Panda S.N., Panigrahi B., Sizing on-farm reservoir for crop-    fish integration in rain fed farming systems in Eastern India. At the end of the experimental period, the growth performance parameters such as weight gain, specific growth rate, length gain and survival rate of Catla catla fry, grown in green water system with harvested rain water in cement tanks (Table 2, Figure 3). The animals were counted in a 1ml Sedgewick-Rafter Chamber. Post-harvest processing and value-addition of this species is almost non-existent at present in any of the producing countries. The maximum specific growth rate of 5.56±0.08% was observed in T1 whereas T4 showed the minimum specific growth of 4.62±0.09%, which showed significant difference (P<0.05) in the specific growth rate (%)Catla catla spawn stocked at different densities. Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 13:251-282. Several factors have enhanced the status of the farming of the Indian major carps: Carps are generally cultured in a closed system that involves herbivorous species, in which organic materials are used as the principal input sources, thereby making it a generally environmental-friendly practice. Population dynamics describes the ways in which a given population grows and shrinks over time, as controlled by birth, death, and migration. After acclimation period of two weeks, fish were transferred into glass aquaria of 70 L water capacity for growth trials. Type the above text in box below (Case sensitive), Article Processing Charges India Study Report. The production levels recorded in carp polyculture systems usually remain at 3-5 tonnes/ha/yr, with catla contributing about 20-30 percent of the biomass. But this will require hormonal induction. The average growth curve and subsequent prediction of growth were computed using SAS program was also studied by him. Webber H., Riordan P.E., Criteria for candidate species for Aquaculture, Aquaculture 7:107-123 (1976). Export to South-East Asian and Middle-East countries. 90 pp. Ayyappan, S. & Jena, J.K. 2003. Curr Agri Res 2017;5(1). Bhubaneswar.CIFA. Rate of growth: Fish which grow to a larger size in shorter period are suitable for culture. 727 pp. The species has also been introduced elsewhere, including Sri Lanka, Israel, Japan, and Mauritius.

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