The Vestfirdir peninsula in NW Iceland may have supported dynamically independent ice caps and/or valley glaciers with outlet glaciers originating within an ice-divide near the centre of the peninsula. Other investigators have noted changes in the mean climate of the tropical Pacific, with the SST distribution being more La Niña-like (i.e., greater cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific than in locations farther west) in the simulations by Hewitt et al. Myrtle Beach in South Carolina experienced high tides in November 2018 which flooded their streets. Maximum ice sheet size coincides with a minimum in global sea level since continental ice mass is by far the dominant factor in glacial–interglacial sea-level changes. The Last Glacial Maximum. He distinguished drumlin types based on their sedimentary composition as rock drumlins, basal till-cored drumlins and glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine sedimentary-core drumlins and postulated that the drumlin-field emplacement was conditioned by the joining of the palaeo-Beagle glacier with the tributary Carbajal glacier in the widest section of the trough with horst and graben tectonic behaviour. J. Ehlers, ... P.D. The ocean stores carbon (called carbon sequestration) when the ice is low, and so the net influx of carbon in our atmosphere which is typically caused by cooling gets stored in our oceans. Fifty thousand years of Arctic vegetation and megafaunal diet. Is the Ice-Free Corridor an Early Pathway into Americas? 4) (Norddahl & Haflidason, 1990). Figure 2.8. We do not as yet know the entire impact of what that means to our planet, but the effects are currently undeniable. By the 1950s, scientists such as Hans Suess and Charles David Keeling began to recognize the inherent dangers of human-added carbon in the atmosphere. The Last Glacial Maximum was the period of maximum global ice volume, and it affected people and places around the world. Earliest Human Presence in North America Dated to the Last Glacial Maximum: New Radiocarbon Dates from Bluefish Caves, Canada. The most recent glacial period peaked 21,500 years ago during the Last Glacial Maximum, or LGM. In Siberia, the expansion of polar ice caps led to drops in global sea levels, creating a land bridge that allowed people to cross into North America. Figure 2.8 (left) shows the distribution of δ13C in the modern and LGM Atlantic ocean, as a nutrient-like tracer of water masses (see Section 2.1.1). The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) occurred about 20,000 years ago, during the last phase of the Pleistocene epoch. Some recent studies suggest that this asymmetry is capable of altering the atmospheric circulation in the tropics, leading to changes in the pattern of tropical precipitation (Chiang et al., 2003). Ana Laura Berman, Gabriel E. Silvestri, Marcela S. Tonello, On the differences between Last Glacial Maximum and Mid-Holocene climates in southern South America simulated by PMIP3 models, Quaternary Science Reviews, 10.1016/j.quascirev.2018.02.003, 185, (113-121), (2018). The LGM, approximately 21 000 yr ago, is a glacial period with large changes in the greenhouse gases, sea level, and ice sheets. The combination of the enhanced upper tropospheric ridge and the northern branch of the split polar jet stream facilitated the export of cold air to the North Atlantic, as discussed in section ‘Interhemispheric Asymmetry of Cooling.’ The southern branch of the jet enhanced winter precipitation in southwestern North America, leading to a wetter climate there. There are, however, certain climate processes that have received special attention, and they are discussed in this section. Paul M. Dolukhanov, in Human Colonization of the Arctic: The Interaction Between Early Migration and the Paleoenvironment, 2017. Knowledge on the further recessional phases is mainly based on investigations in two valley systems. Abstract. The moraine record in the Sawtooth Range and Stanley Basin was first studied in detail by Williams (1961), who established relative moraine chronology based on morphology and relative weathering. The original reconstruction of glacial SSTs by CLIMAP indicated little or no cooling over large areas of the tropics and subtropics. The CLIMAP model can be viewed on a variety of scales (global to sub-regional) and considers a great variety of paleoclimate data types. The LGM and pre-LGM boundaries (here termed the post-GPG III, after Coronato et al., 2004b) have been indicated on the accompanying map. How the Sixth Mass Extinction Affects the U.S. Economy, History of Animal and Plant Domestication. More recent simulations of LGM climate have used a reconstruction of glacial topography in which the surface elevations of the ice sheets are somewhat lower than in the earlier simulations. The LGM is defined as the time period when the continental ice sheets reached their maximum total mass during the last ice age; Clark et al. Figure 2.7. In many parts of the world, primarily in the tropics, ENSO is the largest source of interannual climate variability. Studies with the National Center for Atmospheric Research model CSM (Shin et al., 2003) and the Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis (CCCma) model (Kim et al., 2003) reported a weakening of the MOC and a reduction in the downward penetration of NADW. (2003) found that the amplitude of ENSO variability was enhanced during the LGM. The LGM exemplifies the value of adopting an event-based classification for glacial sequences (i.e., a scheme in which boundaries can be diachronous in nature). Virtually, all LGM simulations with atmosphere-slab ocean GCMs or AOGCMs have simulated reduced temperatures throughout the tropics, although magnitudes vary among model simulations. The overwhelming evidence of this long-gone process is seen in sediments laid down by sea level changes all over the world, in coral reefs and estuaries and oceans; and in the vast North American plains, landscapes scraped flat by thousands of years of glacial movement. Based on their models, the researchers found that the global average temperature from 19,000 to 23,000 years ago was about 46 degrees Fahrenheit. Some of the earliest simulations of LGM climate found that the expanded ice sheets of the Northern Hemisphere were capable of substantially altering the atmospheric circulation. The average winter and summer temperature at the last glacial maximum was, for example, 17.8 and 26.6 for Core V36-06-3, or by 5.9 and 2.2 lower than the present (23.7 and 28.8, respectively), with a seasonality (difference between winter and summer average temperature) of 8.8, by far exceeding that of the present (5.1 "C). Virtually all LGM climate simulations are characterized by greater cooling in the Northern Hemisphere, particularly in the immediate vicinity of the ice sheets, but also extending over the subpolar and mid-latitude North Atlantic in many cases. Ice-sheet surfaces at the LGM were elevated in some locations by more than 2 km, with attendant cooling due to the decrease of temperature with height in the troposphere. Apparent inconsistencies between relatively warm tropical SST and indicators of larger cooling from the tropical continents (snowline depression, noble gases in aquifers, and pollen) have prompted questions about the actual magnitude of LGM tropical cooling (e.g., Broecker, 1995; Rind and Peteet, 1985). However, subsequent attempts at modeling LGM climate, including those for the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project, have produced a variety of circulation patterns for the LGM Atlantic (Weber et al., 2007). During the Tardiglacial the increase in temperatures and precipitation joined with increased productivity of hunting resulted in a decrease of the available resource base. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Only kames and ice-marginal terraces that formed in temporary lakes have been identified. More recent and detailed compilations of LGM proxy data also show a presence of AAIW in the Atlantic, the northward extent of which is subject to ongoing research. The Last Glacial Maximum was the time period about 20,000 years ago when the last glacial period was at its maximum extent and temperatures on the planet were lowest. Climate-Change–Driven Accelerated Sea-Level Rise Detected in the Altimeter Era. Dark blue shading indicates bottom water of Antarctic origin, brown the bottom topography. The marine limit in the area is 110 m a.s.l. The transition from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to the Holocene, during which CO 2 increased by ∼40%, is a key period for such investigations. identify the interval between 26.5 and 19 kyears BP with the LGM (Clark et al., 2009). Otto-Bliesner et al. Climate, CO2, and the history of North American grasses since the Last Glacial Maximum. The late Pleistocene period experienced a sawtooth-like cycling between cool glacial and warm interglacial periods when global temperatures and atmospheric CO2 fluctuated up to 80–100 ppm corresponding with temperature variations of 3–4 degrees Celsius (5.4–7.2 degrees Fahrenheit): increases in atmospheric CO2 preceded decreases in global ice mass. He also noted that the differences in tropical cooling estimates based on different proxies were relatively large, precluding the use of tropical paleotemperatures as a conclusive test of climate models. The nonuniform cooling in LGM simulations has an impact on monsoon circulations, particularly those in the Northern Hemisphere. This reduction in surface elevation reduces the barrier effect of the Laurentide ice sheet, with an attendant reduction in the degree to which the polar jet stream splits, although the resulting circulation is qualitatively similar to the results from the earlier simulations. Though the last glacial period lasted from 110,000 to between 15,000 and 10,000 years ago, it was most intense right before the end. The characteristics of the LGM that scholars use to help identify the impacts of such a major change include fluctuations in effective sea level, and the decrease and subsequent rise in carbon as parts per million in our atmosphere during that period. Other articles where Last Glacial Maximum is discussed: climate change: The Last Glacial Maximum: During the past 25,000 years, the Earth system has undergone a series of dramatic transitions. Researchers are interested in the Last Glacial Maximum because of when it happened: it was the most recent globally impacting climate change, and it happened and to some degree affected the speed and trajectory of the colonization of the American continents. More recent proxies for SST such as alkenone unsaturation and Mg/Ca ratio indicate that LGM tropical cooling was larger than the CLIMAP reconstruction. The advent of AOGCM simulations of the LGM has opened new areas of investigation for climate modelers. Megafauna Extinctions - What (or Who) Killed All the Big Mammals? The term ‘Last Glacial Maximum’ (LGM) has no formal stratigraphic status in Geological time, however, because each ice sheet reached its maximum extent at different times .The Global Last Glacial Maximum can also be defined by the global sea level low-stand; when all the ice was locked up in the ice sheets, global sea levels reached as much as 125 m below present. Most early measures of current sea level rise have been based on changes in tides at the local level. Between the LGM and the beginning of the Holocene ~ 10 kyears BP, peak northern summer insolation increased by some 40–50 W/m2. September 21, 2018 thegcatblog 2 Comments. However, a lower sea level also increases salinity, and that and other physical changes to the large-scale ocean currents and sea ice fields also contribute to carbon sequestration. For many taxa, research has focused on genetic patterns since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), however glacial cycles before the LGM likely impacted … For roughly half of these simulations, the simulated terrestrial cooling in the tropics was in good agreement with paleodata. At Redfish Lake, glacial advances emerged from the mountains and left moraines at nearly right angles to the mountain front (Figs. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123918512000027, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444534477000519, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081005248000038, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128135327000012, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123859563100026, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124095489094094, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1571086604800617, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444534477000027, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1571086604800678, Stanford et al., 2006; Deschamps et al., 2012, Oppo and Lehman, 1993; Alley and Clark, 1999, Quaternary Glaciations - Extent and Chronology, Past Glacial Environments (Second Edition), Human Colonization of the Arctic: The Interaction Between Early Migration and the Paleoenvironment, Evidence for Synchronous Global Climatic Events, Don J. Easterbrook, ... Robert Finkel, in, Paleoclimate Modeling of Last Glacial Maximum GCMs☆, Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, Quaternary Glaciations Extent and Chronology, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Largest cooling over Laurentide and Eurasian ice sheets; Northern Hemisphere cools more than Southern Hemisphere, Polar jet stream splits around Laurentide ice sheet; enhanced ridge of high pressure in upper troposphere over western North America, Weakening of the South Asian monsoon; weakening of cross-equatorial flow in the Indian Ocean; decrease in intensity of south westerly winds over the Arabian Sea, Models simulate overall tropical cooling; magnitude varies among different models, Weakens in two models and strengthens slightly in another; North Atlantic Deep Water does not sink as deep, Tropical Pacific climate and air–sea interactions, Amplitude of ENSO variability is increased in one model; mean climate becomes more ‘La Niña-like’ in two others. The weakening of NADW formation and the MOC in CCSM was attributed to changes in Antarctic Bottom Water formation that result from the expansion of sea ice in the Southern Ocean. Here, using neodymium … During the Last Glacial Maximum an ice cap covered the whole massif and was surrounded by five outlet glaciers; the two largest, Schirgoutte and Andlau were each 4 km long. Fig. We can see a southward shift of deepwater formation, a shoaling of NADW flow and an upward and northward extension of AABW, and a similar NADW renewal rate as at present, combined with a near-breakdown of the outflow across 30 °S as the overturning cell recirculates within the Atlantic. A small independent ice cap covered the top (960-1100 m) of the Champ du Feu in Younger Dryas time, and two short ice streams extended from this summit towards the NW: the Schirgoutte and Serva (Table 2) which are represented by two and three recessional moraines respectively. Hughes, in Past Glacial Environments (Second Edition), 2018. Last glacial maximum Hotter and colder: how historic glacial cycles have shaped modern diversity. FIGURE 2. The vertical gray bar indicates the time of the LGM. However, Antonione (2006, unpublished) surveyed the Carbajal-Harberton drumlin field in the Estancia Harberton area. Existing studies of environmental proxies and climate model simulations are contradictory, with interpretations varying between cold-dry and cold-wet environmental conditions which differentially influenced lake volumes, loess deposition and vegetation communities across the TP. (2003) and Kim et al. Breckenridge et al. The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) refers to the most recent period in earth's history when the glaciers were at their thickest and the sea levels at their lowest, roughly between 24,000–18,000 calendar years ago (cal bp). While the protactinium/thorium ratio suggests a NADW renewal rate similar to today, these δ18O data may indicate a much reduced NADW outflow into the Southern Ocean (Lynch-Stieglitz et al., 2007). Last Glacial Maximum. A tale as old as time. The ice covered all land areas and extended into the ocean onto the middle and outer continental shelf. The earliest phases of human settlement in the northeastern part of the Baltic region are represented by the Mesolithic sites with the earliest dates up to 9200–8250 BC. We consider all natural sources of methane except for emissions from wild animals and geological sources, i.e. Weakening of the zonal SST gradient, wind stresses, and upwelling in the tropical Pacific region and an intensification of the tropical thermocline were identified as causes of this enhanced variability. One of the most important findings in northern Iceland regarding the deglaciation history, are four separate ice-lake strandlines attributed to four separate periods of glacial isostatic recovery (Norddahl, 1991). The last glacial maximum (LGM) is represented by large, massive moraines rising 330 m above their bases on the valley floors in more than a dozen drainages (Fig. Einarsson & Albertsson, 1988; Ingólfsson, 1991; Norddahl, 1991; Ingólfsson & Norddahl, 1994; Andrews et al., 2000; Rundgren & Ingólfsson, 1999). At that time, global sea level was more than 400 feet lower than it is today, and glaciers covered approximately:8% of Earth’s surface25% of Earth’s land area33% of AlaskaBeginning about 15,000 years ago, continental glaciers retreated and sea level began to rise. At present there is no definitive explanation for the difference between the HadCM3 response and that of the other models, although it is possible to speculate that HadCM3 had not completely adjusted to LGM forcing. δ18O data at 30 °S from the eastern and western side of the basin indicate a collapse of the east–west density gradient, which currently characterizes the outflow of NADW (see Section 2.1.3). 1). This is perhaps not surprising since the stability properties of the thermohaline ocean circulation are highly nonlinear and dependent on a subtle density balance, where particularly the freshwater budget is difficult to get right in models even for the modern ocean (Hofmann and Rahmstorf, 2009). More recent data comes from satellite altimetry that samples the open oceans, allowing for precise quantitative statements. Summary of changes in climate from GCM simulations of the LGM. The British-Irish Ice Sheet reached its most recent maximum extent around 27,000 years ago. Shells found both in front and behind the BúÐi moraines range in age from 11.5 to 10.1 cal ka (10,075-9055 BP), indicating a Preboreal age for the succession. Since 1963, the Florida Keys upland vegetation is being replaced by salt tolerant vegetation. The nature of the overturning circulation in the Atlantic Ocean during the Last Glacial Maximum remains a topic of contention. Pleistocene glacial cycles influenced the diversification of high-latitude wildlife species through recurrent periods of range contraction, isolation, divergence, and expansion from refugia and subsequent admixture of refugial populations. It is worth noting that both HadCM3 and the CCCma model (Kim et al., 2002) experienced a transient increase in MOC intensity immediately after the LGM forcing was initiated, but the CCCma model eventually settled in a state with a weaker MOC. Unlocking ice-flow pathways using glacial erratics. Although the precise timing of the LGM and the full extent of the ice-sheet is poorly constrained by observations, ice streams and outlet glaciers are thought to have emanated from ice divides in south-central Iceland, terminating at the shelf edge (Fig. The reconstructed deglaciation history of North Iceland shows four plausible glacier readvances in the period between 14700-10900 cal. Recent LGM simulations with AOGCMs indicate that dynamical processes such as the ventilation of thermocline and intermediate waters from higher latitudes (Liu et al., 2002) can also influence the magnitude to tropical cooling, at least locally or regionally. That pattern has been destabilized by global warming as a result of the Industrial Revolution. Long-term data have been collected throughout the world, and estimates are that by 2100, a 3–6 feet (1–2 meter) rise in the Mean Global Sea Level is possible, accompanied by a 1.5–2 degree Celsius in overall warming. In the lead up to the LGM between 29,000 and 21,000 cal bp, our planet saw constant or slowly increasing ice volumes, with the sea level reaching its lowest level (about 450 feet below today's norm) when there was about 52x10(6) cubic kilometers more glacial ice than there is today. Comment from expert scientist: The activity uses a widely-accessible and heavily cited model of climate conditions for the Last Glacial Maximum and the present. During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), Iceland and the surrounding shelf was presumably ice-covered (Fig. Last Glacial Maximum. During its retreat, this glacier built at least two dozen recessional moraines. The major cause of sea level drop during the ice ages was the movement of water out of the oceans into ice and the planet's dynamic response to the enormous weight of all that ice atop our continents. The blue and purple lines show sea-level predictions for New Guinea and Barbados, while the gray line shows eustatic sea level. Thackray et al. This massive increase in solar heating was the driver of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation and consequent sea-level rise by ~ 130 m. Detailed analysis reveals some episodes of exceptionally rapid sea-level rise, known as meltwater pulses (Fairbanks, 1989). Using a number of simulations performed within the framework of the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP), Pinot et al. During the LGM, entry into the Americas was blocked by ice sheets: many scholars now believe that the colonists began entering into the Americas across what was Beringia, perhaps as early as 30,000 years ago. The location of the ice sheets in the path of the polar jet stream creates the potential for the jet to be altered by their presence. Noting the paucity of 14C dates from Iceland that predate the Preboreal, Hjartarson & Ingólfsson (1988) suggested that the ice extended beyond the present coastline during the Younger Dryas (Fig. According to genetic studies, humans were stranded on the Bering Land Bridge during the LGM between 18,000–24,000 cal BP, trapped by the ice on the island before they were set free by the retreating ice. 4. These ice-contact sediments, developed especially around the overdeepened parts of the valleys (Fig. Figure 2.7 shows global sea-level history across the LGM based on four proxy records for relative sea level from far-field sites (i.e., sites that are remote from the location of the ice sheets) as well as an independent estimate of eustatic sea-level changes based on a large number of proxy estimates of the size of continental ice masses. Two large refugia have been formed, located in the western part of the area (Franco-Cantabria) and on the east, including the Vistula River basin and the uppermost parts of the Dniester, Dnieper, and Don River basins. The timing of the LGM coincides with a strong minimum in summer insolation in mid- to high northern latitudes due to orbital cycles, and it is thus naturally explained by the Milankovitch theory of glaciations. The following paragraphs describe key sites that provide some evidence about the deglaciation of the Eastern Alps. A brief summary of these results is provided in Table 2. A comparison of glacial sea-level proxies with δ18O from benthic foraminifera shells (the often-used Lisiecki–Raymo stack (Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005)) reveals some differences that can be explained by changes in deepwater temperature, since the calcite δ18O depends on both ice volume and local temperature (Section 2.1.2). Don J. Easterbrook, ... Robert Finkel, in Evidence-Based Climate Science, 2011. K. Kris Hirst is an archaeologist with 30 years of field experience. Systematic comparison of model results with the full suite of proxy data is needed to establish what range of circulation patterns is consistent with the data. GIS-based Maps and Area Estimates of Northern Hemisphere Permafrost Extent during the Last Glacial Maximum. No further papers have been published on the area to date. This distribution of water masses was more recently confirmed by Cd/Ca ratios (Lynch-Stieglitz et al., 2007). In the Florida Everglades (Dessu and colleagues 2018), sea level rise has been measured at 5 in (13 cm) between 2001 and 2015. of the Last Glacial Maximum PAGES 241,246-247 What was the extent and volume of glaciers and ice sheets during the Last Glacial Maxi mum (LGM) centered on 21,000 calendar years ago? Geirsdóttir et al. This interpretation is supported by radiocarbon dates on foraminifera and the occurrence of the Vedde Ash at the base of a discontinuous 25-m-long sediment core from Lake Hestvatn, (15-20 km south of the BúÐi moraines), covering the last 12 cal ka (Geirsdóttir et al., 2000; Harðardóttir et al., 2001). Effects of Sea-Level Rise and Freshwater Management on Long-Term Water Levels and Water Quality in the Florida Coastal Everglades. Ingólfsson, 1991; Norddahl, 1991; Ingólfsson & Norddahl, 1994; Ingólfsson et al., 1997; Andrews et al., 2000; Syvitski et al., 1999). Tree trunks and marine shells from here have been radiocarbon dated to 41.7 14C ka BP and also older than 46.1 14C ka BP. The LGM Atlantic likewise shows a low-nutrient water mass of northern origin and below it a high-nutrient water mass, but their boundary is higher up in the water column at about 2 km depth. The glacial monsoon response is consistent, in terms of its physical mechanism, with other climate model simulations that indicate a strong response of the Asian monsoon to precessional forcing. Our 10Be dates on these moraines indicate that all of these moraines are late Pinedale and confirm that the prominent cirque moraines indeed fall within the YD chron. During the last glacial period Antarctica was blanketed by a massive ice sheet, much as it is today. Specific Studies and Long-Term Predictions. The simulated climate undergoes a rapid adjustment during the first several decades after imposition of LGM boundary conditions, as described in Part 1, and then evolves toward equilibrium over 900 model years. Table 2. This probably resulted in glacier calving, which would have enhanced the rate of ice recession. During the LGM, continent-wide ice sheets covered high-latitude Europe and North America, and sea levels were between 400–450 feet (120–135 meters) lower than they are today. The monsoon is weaker when perihelion occurs in winter, since this orbital configuration results in cooler summer temperatures, analogous to the glacial case. How much lower was global sea level as a result of growth of LGM ice sheets? Focusing on the results of one particular PMIP simulation, Broccoli (2000) found that the simulated cooling was consistent with some tropical temperature proxies, but smaller than the cooling inferred from other proxies. Thus, there is an understandable interest in developing further insights into this question based on the results from glacial AOGCM simulations. During the past 25,000 years, the Earth system has undergone a series of dramatic transitions. during the Pre-boreal. The Mesolithic and Early Neolithic (ceramic) sites at the Kola Peninsula and adjacent areas of Northern Norway are located on ancient seashores, river valleys, and lake terraces. A particular focus of AOGCM simulation studies has been the response of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) in the ocean to glacial forcing. He mapped several crosscutting morainal systems, which he called Bull Lake 1, Bull Lake 2, and Pinedale, and established a relative chronology, but had no numerical dates. Andrea Coronato, Jorge Rabassa, in Developments in Quaternary Sciences, 2011. They recognized two morainal groups, each consisting of several lateral and end moraines, which they distinguished on the basis of soil characteristics and moraine morphometry and concluded that the outer moraines were at least 10 ka older than the inner moraines. (2001). (2014) mentioned that for Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6 ‘eustatic sea level records and glacial geological evidence suggest that ice sheets expanded, with global ice-volume reaching its maximum extent toward the end of MIS 6’, i.e., ~140–136 ka (within MIS 6a; ‘PGM’ or ‘Penultimate Glacial Maximum’, sensu Stirling et al., 1998); or c. 149–140 ka (Railsback et al., 2014, 2015b).
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