Ecuador has often placed great emphasis on multilateral approaches to international issues. Huáscar ordered Atahualpa to attend their father's burial in Cuzco and pay homage to him as the new Inca ruler. Due to this change, there are many highly educated professionals and academicians under the old structure but estimated that only 87% of the faculty in public universities have already obtained a master's degree, and fewer than 5% have a PhD (although many of them already have Ecuadorian-granted doctorate degrees). The people of the coast developed a fishing, hunting, and gathering culture; the people of the highland Andes developed a sedentary agricultural way of life, and the people of the Amazon basin developed a nomadic hunting-and-gathering mode of existence. , The Air Academy "Cosme Rennella (c. 1920), also located in Salinas, graduates the air force officers.. The Center for Research and Technology Development in Ecuador is an autonomous center for research and technology development funded by Senecyt. , The extreme poverty rate has declined significantly between 1999 and 2010. Under President Rafael Correa, the country returned to OPEC before leaving again in 2020 under the instruction of President Moreno, citing its desire to increase crude oil importation to gain more revenue.. Before we get to the detailed charts, we have a number of climate charts organized by specific months. The National Assembly of Ecuador meets throughout the year except for recesses in July and December. He announced that the country would default on over $3 billion worth of bonds; he then pledged to fight creditors in international courts and succeeded in reducing the price of outstanding bonds by more than 60%. The valley of Guayllabamba River where Quito lies is flanked by volcanoes, some of them snow-capped, and visible from the city on a clear day. Before the arrival of the Spaniards, the Inca Empire was involved in a civil war. Pacific current causes a hot, rainy, humid season from January through April, when torrential downpours … In 1563, Quito became the seat of a real audiencia (administrative district) of Spain and part of the Viceroyalty of Peru and later the Viceroyalty of New Granada. Annual Weather Averages in Cuenca. The largest of which is the ongoing deforestation.  Ecuador was able to maintain relatively superior growth during the crisis. Spring, summer, and fall are generally the "wet seasons". In five months, New Granada defeated Ecuador due to the fact that the majority of the Ecuadorian Armed Forces were composed of rebellious angry unpaid veterans from Venezuela and Colombia that did not want to fight against their fellow countrymen. He gave the territories pertaining to present-day Ecuador and northern Peru to his favorite son Atahualpa, who was to rule from Quito; and he gave the rest to Huáscar, who was to rule from Cuzco. The coastal lowlands in the western part of Ecuador are typically warm with temperatures in the region of 25 °C (77 °F). These are elected by the Judicial Council on the basis of opposition proceedings and merits. In the 1950's the Italians were the third largest national group in terms of numbers of immigrants, since Ecuador like Mexico and the Andean countries did not receive a significant total number of immigrants. Because of its location at the equator, Ecuador experiences little variation in daylight hours during the course of a year. The military tradition starts in Gran Colombia, where a sizable army was stationed in Ecuador due to border disputes with Peru, which claimed territories under its political control when it was a Spanish vice-royalty. The Galapagos and the coast are influenced by ocean currents. Galápagos, despite being included within Region 5, is also under a special unit.. According to the Ecuadorian National Institute of Statistics and Census, 91.95% of the country's population have a religion, 7.94% are atheists and 0.11% are agnostics. Ecuador abolished slavery and freed its black slaves in 1851.. The 19th century was marked by instability for Ecuador with a rapid succession of rulers. However, a post-Second World War recession and popular unrest led to a return to populist politics and domestic military interventions in the 1960s, while foreign companies developed oil resources in the Ecuadorian Amazon. The justice system is buttressed by the independent offices of public prosecutor and the public defender. After Peru was completely liberated from Spain by the patriot armies led by Bolivar and Antonio Jose de Sucre at the Battle of Ayacucho dated December 9, 1824, there was a strong desire by some Peruvians to resurrect the Inca Empire and to include Bolivia and Ecuador. Because of global warming glacier Carihuairazo has already lost 96% of the its glacier surface. , After nearly 300 years of Spanish rule, Quito was still a small city numbering 10,000 inhabitants. The border dispute was then submitted to Spain for arbitration from 1880 to 1910, but to no avail. The Galápagos Islands have no significant rivers. The story is based on a real pirate by the name of George d'Hout who terrorized Guayaquil in the 16th Century. One of the points of conflict was the imposition of obtaining foreign degrees to current academicians. The history behind the Inca drama "Ollantay", the oldest literary piece in existence for any Amerindian language in America, shares some similarities with the work of Collahuazo. Other new developments include the National Unity bridge complex in Guayaquil, the bridge over the Napo river in Francisco de Orellana, the Esmeraldas River Bridge in the city of the same name, and, perhaps the most remarkable of all, the Bahia – San Vincente Bridge, being the largest on the Latin American Pacific coast. However, that same year, 1821, Peruvian forces participating in the Trujillo revolution occupied both Jaen and Tumbes. Ecuador sijaitsee päiväntasaajalla, ja sitä rajoittaa pohjoisessa Kolumbia, idässä ja etelässä Peru sekä lännessä Tyynimeri.Valtioon kuuluu lisäksi Tyynellemerellä olevat Galápagossaaret.. Ecuador jakaantuu kolmeen maantieteelliseen alueeseen: rannikon Costa, vuoristo eli Sierra ja itäosa eli Oriente. The first president of Ecuador was the Venezuelan-born Juan José Flores, who was ultimately deposed, followed by several authoritarian leaders, such as Vicente Rocafuerte; José Joaquín de Olmedo; José María Urbina; Diego Noboa; Pedro José de Arteta; Manuel de Ascásubi; and Flores's own son, Antonio Flores Jijón, among others. On August 10, 1809, the city's criollos called for independence from Spain (first among the peoples of Latin America). This body, along with the electoral court, forms the Electoral Branch which is one of Ecuador's five branches of government. I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.  The protection of the nation's biodiversity is an explicit national priority as stated in the National Plan of "Buen Vivir", or good living, Objective 4, "Guarantee the rights of nature", Policy 1: "Sustainably conserve and manage the natural heritage, including its land and marine biodiversity, which is considered a strategic sector". About 300 institutes of higher education offer two to three years of post-secondary vocational or technical training. Climate in Ecuador 1. It is now known that these highly polluting and now obsolete technologies were used as a way to reduce expenses. We will focus on measures of temperature and precipitation, followed by some discussion of the role of ENSO. The tropical forest region to the east of the mountains (El Oriente) remains sparsely populated and contains only about 3% of the population. The current constitution was written by the Ecuadorian Constituent Assembly elected in 2007, and was approved by referendum in 2008. Today you can find a small community of Africans in the Catamayo valley of the predominantly mestizo population of Loja. Rodrigo Borja Cevallos of the Democratic Left (Izquierda Democrática, or ID) party won the presidency in 1988, running in the runoff election against Abdalá Bucaram (brother in law of Jaime Roldos and founder of the Ecuadorian Roldosist Party). A number of bloody battles took place until finally Huáscar was captured. The emergence of the Amerindian population as an active constituency has added to the democratic volatility of the country in recent years. Fruitless negotiations continued between the governments of Bogotá and Quito, where the government of Bogotá did not recognize the separation of Ecuador or that of Cauca from the Gran Colombia until war broke out in May 1832. Spanish is the official language and is spoken by a majority of the population, though 13 Native languages are also recognized, including Quechua and Shuar. Ecuador lies between latitudes 2°N and 5°S, The climate here is classified as Aw by the Köppen-Geiger system. Climate zones. Bolivar countered by sending a message from Guayaquil welcoming San Martin and his troops to Colombian soil.  The Ministry of Education states that the mean number of years completed is 6.7.  Current protected areas include 11 national parks, 10 wildlife refuges, 9 ecological reserves, and other areas. In Ecuador, there are seven regions, or zones, each shaped by the following provinces: Quito and Guayaquil are Metropolitan Districts. Also, it has a huge culture spectrum. The first Indians who reached Ecuador may have journeyed by land from North and Central America or by boat down the Pacific Ocean coastline. The Galápagos Islands are well known as a region of distinct fauna, famous as the place of birth of Darwin's Theory of Evolution and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Most of them are Sephardic Anusim (Crypto-Jews) and many still speak Judaeo-Spanish (Ladino) language.  The Guarantors of the Rio Protocol (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and the United States of America) ruled that the border of the undelineated zone was to be set at the line of the Cordillera del Cóndor. Pérez also set a world best in the 2003 World Championships of 1:17:21 for the 20-km (12 mi) distance. The Productive Development Act enshrines an austerity policy, and reduces the development and redistribution policies of the previous mandate. Jaime Roldós Aguilera was elected president, garnering over one million votes, the most in Ecuadorian history. Among the people that have a religion, 80.44% are Roman Catholic Latin Rite (see List of Roman Catholic dioceses in Ecuador), 11.30% are Evangelical Protestants, 1.29% are Jehovah's Witnesses and 6.97% other (mainly Jewish, Buddhists and Latter-day Saints). Therefore, an MD or PhD in medicine is only to be obtained overseas until the universities adjust themselves to granting schemes and curriculum as in foreign counterparts.  Coastal areas are affected by ocean currents and are hot and rainy between January and April.. Similarly, a number of loyal Inca subjects from Peru and Bolivia were brought to Ecuador to prevent rebellion. Many civilizations arose in Ecuador, such as the Valdivia Culture and Machalilla Culture on the coast, the Quitus (near present-day Quito), and the Cañari (near present-day Cuenca). , In the early years of World War II, Ecuador still admitted a certain number of immigrants, and in 1939, when several South American countries refused to accept 165 Jewish refugees from Germany aboard the ship Koenigstein, Ecuador granted them entry permits.  Ecuador also produces coffee, rice, potatoes, cassava (manioc, tapioca), plantains and sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork and dairy products; fish, and shrimp; and balsa wood. The city is built on a long plateau lying on the east flanks of the Pichincha volcano. The Ecuadorian Institute of Social Security (IESS) has several major hospitals and medical sub-centers under its administration across the nation.. The IWIAS is a special force trained to perform exploration and military activities. In Ecuador it is the "national genre of music".  The oil trade balance positive had revenues of $3.295 million in 2008, while non-oil was negative, amounting to $2.842 million. The matches of the Ecuadorian national team are the most-watched sporting events in the country. The oldest observatory in South America is the Quito Astronomical Observatory and is located in Quito, Ecuador. bounded on the west by the Pacific Ocean, and has 2,337 km (1,452 mi) of coastline.  In April 2007, Ecuador paid off its debt to the IMF, thus ending an era of interventionism of the Agency in the country. The current structure of the Ecuadorian public health care system dates back to 1967. Later, a brief war erupted between Colombia and Peru, over Peru's claims to the Caquetá region, which ended with Peru reluctantly signing the Salomon-Lozano Treaty on March 24, 1922. The weather in Quito is consistent with that of a subtropical highland climate. In addition to over 16,000 species of plants, the country has 106 endemic reptiles, 138 endemic amphibians, and 6,000 species of butterfly. It has 2,010 km (1,250 mi) of land boundaries, with Colombia in the north (with a 590 km (367 mi) border) and Peru in the east and south (with a 1,420 km (882 mi) border). The species of butterflies border the 4,500, the reptiles 345, the amphibians 358 and the mammals 258, among others. The Pastaza includes the Agoyan waterfall, which at sixty-one meters (200 feet) is the highest waterfall in Ecuador. Ecuador has a small area of truly dry climate at the Santa Elena Peninsula along the southern coast, with annual rainfall decreasing from about 40 inches (1,000 mm) near Guayaquil to only 4 … However, Bolívar's intention was to form a new republic known as the Gran Colombia, out of the liberated Spanish territory of New Granada which consisted of Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador. For Ecuadorian researchers and many academicians trained in the country, these regulations sounded illogical, disappointing, and unlawful since it appeared a question of a title name conflict rather than specialization or science advancement. Its main body is the National Electoral Council, which is based in the city of Quito, and consists of seven members of the political parties most voted, enjoying complete financial and administrative autonomy. In July 1941, troops were mobilized in both countries. In Ecuador's southern Andes Mountain region where the Marañon cuts across, Ecuador had de jure claims to an area it called Jaén de Bracamoros. Atahualpa, with a large number of his father's veteran soldiers, decided to ignore Huáscar, and a civil war ensued.  In the case of engineering fields, the majority of scientific production comes from the top three polytechnic institutions: Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral - ESPOL, Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas - ESPE, and Escuela Politécnica Nacional EPN. Not in vain, Ecuador is considered one of the 17 countries where the planet's highest biodiversity is concentrated, being also the largest country with diversity per km2 in the world. Tumbes declared itself independent from Spain on January 17, 1821, and Jaen de Bracamoros on June 17, 1821, without any outside help from revolutionary armies. , According to HRW, Correa's government has weakened the freedom of press and independence of the judicial system. Peru had an army of 11,681 troops who faced a poorly supplied and inadequately armed Ecuadorian force of 2,300, of which only 1,300 were deployed in the southern provinces. EPN adopted the polytechnic university model that stresses laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering. The philosophy of the Ministry of Public Health is the social support and service to the most vulnerable population, and its main plan of action lies around communitarian health and preventive medicine.. , A prominent East Asian Latino community mainly consists of those of Japanese and Chinese descent, whose ancestors arrived as miners, farmhands and fishermen in the late 19th century. This region is a leading producer of bananas, cocoa beans (to make chocolate), shrimp, tilapia, mango, and passion fruit, among other products.  As of the writing of the Plan in 2008, 19% of Ecuador's land area was in a protected area; however, the Plan also states that 32% of the land must be protected in order to truly preserve the nation's biodiversity. More rigorously, it denotes the mean and variability of meteorological variables over a time spanning from months to millions of years. The existence of his literary work came to light many centuries later, when a crew of masons was restoring the walls of a colonial church in Quito and found a hidden manuscript. The executive branch includes 23 ministries. The city was selected as the site of the sixth South American Windsurfing Championship.  Today the Jewish Community of Ecuador (Comunidad Judía del Ecuador) has its seat in Quito and has approximately 200 members. After a few weeks of war and under pressure by the United States and several Latin American nations, all fighting came to a stop. The climate of Ecuador varies by region, due to differences in elevation and, to a degree, in proximity to the equator. The doctors assigned to rural communities, where the Amerindian population can be substantial, have small clinics under their responsibility for the treatment of patients in the same fashion as the day hospitals in the major cities. It was common knowledge among the top officers of the liberation army from the south that their leader San Martin wished to liberate present-day Ecuador and add it to the future republic of Peru, since it had been part of the Inca Empire before the Spaniards conquered it. Tecnocumbia and Rockola are clear examples of the influence of foreign cultures. The pipeline in southern Ecuador did nothing to resolve tensions between Ecuador and Peru, however. Ecuador during its long and turbulent history has lost most of its contested territories to each of its more powerful neighbors, such as Colombia in 1832 and 1916, Brazil in 1904 through a series of peaceful treaties, and Peru after a short war in which the Protocol of Rio de Janeiro was signed in 1942. Ecuador map of KÃ¶ppen climate classification. Vice President Alfredo Palacio took his place and remained in office until the presidential election of 2006, in which Rafael Correa gained the presidency. Ecuador countered by labeling the Cedula of 1802 an ecclesiastical instrument, which had nothing to do with political borders. These glaciers in Ecuador play a major role in the climate because they gather the atmospheric circulation from the Pacific and the humidity of the Amazon region.. Its political and military power came under the rule of the Duchicela blood-line. Ecuadorian cuisine is diverse, varying with altitude, and associated agricultural conditions.Beef, chicken, and seafood are popular in the coastal regions and are typically served with carbohydrate-rich foods, such as rice accompanied with lentils, pasta, or plantain, whereas in the mountainous regions pork, chicken, beef and cuy are popular and are often served with rice, corn, or potatoes. Most Ecuadorians speak Spanish as their first language, with its ubiquity permeating and dominating most of the country, though there are many who speak an Amerindian language, such as Kichwa (also spelled Quechua), which is one of the Quechuan languages and is spoken by approximately 2.5 million people in Ecuador, Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru. Many people believe that he was assassinated by the CIA, given the multiple death threats leveled against him because of his reformist agenda, deaths in automobile crashes of two key witnesses before they could testify during the investigation, and the sometimes contradictory accounts of the incident. The roads of Ecuador in recent years have undergone important improvement. Most festivals and annual parades are based on religious celebrations, many incorporating a mixture of rites and icons. The executive branch is led by the president, an office currently held by Lenín Moreno. The climate in the Andean highlands is temperate and relatively dry, and the Amazon basin on the eastern side of the mountains shares the climate of other rainforest zones. A few months later, a part of the Peruvian liberation army of San Martin decided to occupy the independent cities of Tumbez and Jaén with the intention of using these towns as springboards to occupy the independent city of Guayaquil and then to liberate the rest of the Audiencia de Quito (Ecuador). Although well-equipped general hospitals are found in the major cities or capitals of provinces, there are basic hospitals in the smaller towns and canton cities for family care consultation and treatments in pediatrics, gynecology, clinical medicine, and surgery.  . It will enhance any encyclopedic page you visit with the magic of the WIKI 2 technology. In the absence of the section between Loja and the border with Peru, there are the Route Espondilus and/or Ruta del Sol (oriented to travel along the Ecuadorian coastline) and the Amazon backbone (which crosses from north to south along the Ecuadorian Amazon, linking most and more major cities of it). In the case of Guayaquil it involved a new air terminal, once considered the best in South America and the best in Latin America and in Quito where an entire new airport has been built in Tababela and was inaugurated in February 2013, with Canadian assistance. Local Concept of the Climate of Ecuador. However, in 2004, the National Council of Higher Education (CONESUP), started the reorganization of all the degree-granting schemes of the accredited universities in order to pair them with foreign counterparts. I t is interesting to see that in the tropics very few Latin Americans distinguish between climate and weather and they use the two words for both meanings. The coup d'état was led by General Guillermo Rodríguez and executed by navy commander Jorge Queirolo G. The new president exiled José María Velasco to Argentina. Moreover, the Cauca region, throughout its long history, had very strong economic and cultural ties with the people of Ecuador. Since Ecuador's separation from Colombia on May 13, 1830, its first President, General Juan José Flores, laid claim to the territory that was called the Real Audiencia of Quito, also referred to as the Presidencia of Quito. Finally, on July 23, 1941, the Peruvians launched a major invasion, crossing the Zarumilla river in force and advancing into the Ecuadorian province of El Oro.  However, some public hospitals are in poor condition and often lack necessary supplies to attend the high demand of patients. The war ended when a triumphant heavily outnumbered southern Gran Colombian army at Battle of Tarqui dated February 27, 1829, led by Antonio José de Sucre, defeated the Peruvian invasion force led by President La Mar. Local Concept of the Climate and weather in Ecuador. During this period, Texaco drilled 339 wells in 15 petroleum fields and abandoned 627 toxic wastewater pits, as well as other elements of the oil infrastructure. Culturally, the Toquilla straw hat and the culture of the Zapara indigenous people are recognized. And for this, means of exploiting them are developed along with the private economy. The Geophysics Institute monitors over the country's volcanoes in the Andes Mountains of Ecuador and in the Galápagos Islands, all of which is part of the Ring of Fire.  A program begun in 2008, Sociobosque, is preserving another 2.3% of total land area (6,295 km2, or 629,500 ha) by paying private landowners or community landowners (such as Amerindian tribes) incentives to maintain their land as native ecosystems such as native forests or grasslands. Gran Colombia had always protested Peru for the return of Jaen and Tumbes for almost a decade, then finally Bolivar after long and futile discussion over the return of Jaen, Tumbes, and part of Mainas, declared war. Between 2008 and 2016, new public hospitals have been built, the number of civil servants has increased significantly and salaries have been increased. It is considered the third oldest university of the country, right after the Universidad Central del Ecuador (1836) and the Universidad Nacional de Loja (1859).  Ecuadorians have a life expectancy of 77.1 years. Hostilities erupted on July 5, 1941, when Peruvian forces crossed the Zarumilla river at several locations, testing the strength and resolve of the Ecuadorian border troops. Some Peruvian generals, without any legal titles backing them up and with Ecuador still federated with the Gran Colombia, had the desire to annex Ecuador to the Republic of Peru at the expense of the Gran Colombia, feeling that Ecuador was once part of the Inca Empire. Ecuador encompasses a wide range of natural formations and climates, from the desert -like southern coast to the snowcapped peaks of the Andes mountain range to the plains of the Amazon Basin. In the small Chota Valley of the province of Imbabura exists a small community of Africans among the province's predominantly mestizo population. In the northernmost part of the coast, we find a small area occupied by forests and mangroves, where the climate is equatorial, hot and humid all year round, with constant rains; in Valdez, near the border with Colombia, 2,400 millimeters (95 inches) of rain fall per year. Urbina and General Robles are examples of military figures who became presidents of the country in the early republican period. In 1972, a "revolutionary and nationalist" military junta overthrew the government of Velasco Ibarra. The climate in the Andean highlands is temperate and relatively dry, and the Amazon basin on the eastern side of the mountains shares the climate of other rainforest zones. The treatment in this case respects the culture of the community.  Ecuador is bigger than Uruguay, Suriname, Guyana and French Guiana in South America. Various peoples had settled in the area of future Ecuador before the arrival of the Incas. , The first Jews arrived in Ecuador in the 16th and 17th centuries. Marriages are usually from 14 and above using parental consent. Though most features of Ecuadorian Spanish are universal to the Spanish-speaking world, there are several idiosyncrasies. The Andes is the watershed divisor between the Amazon watershed, which runs to the east, and the Pacific, including the north–south rivers Mataje, Santiago, Esmeraldas, Chone, Guayas, Jubones, and Puyango-Tumbes. In the agricultural sector, Ecuador is a major exporter of bananas (first place worldwide in production and export), flowers, and the seventh largest producer of cocoa. The Ecuadorian constitution recognizes the "pluri-nationality" of those who want to exercise their affiliation with their native ethnic groups. , In recent years, Ecuador has grown in popularity among North American expatriates. The Napo rises near Mount Cotopaxi and is the major river used for transport in the eastern lowlands. , In the Amazon region, a dietary staple is the yuca, elsewhere called cassava. Ecuador Ecuador faces a variety of climate change risks associated with changes in temperature and precipitation, as well as possible alterations to ocean currents.  The infant mortality rate is 13 per 1,000 live births, a major improvement from approximately 76 in the early 1980s and 140 in 1950.  The monthly unemployment rate remained at about 6 and 8 percent from December 2007 until September 2008; however, it went up to about 9 percent in October and dropped again in November 2008 to 8 percent. Weather patterns vary according to geography and temperatures are determined more by elevation than by season. One of 17 megadiverse countries in the world, Ecuador hosts many endemic plants and animals, such as those of the Galápagos Islands. In January 2009, the Central Bank of Ecuador (BCE) put the 2010 growth forecast at 6.88%. , In world class professional cycling, Richard Carapaz became the first Ecuadorian to win a Grand Tour. Each civilisation developed its own distinctive architecture, pottery, and religious interests. One region consolidated under a confederation called the Shyris, which exercised organized trading and bartering between the different regions.  Incomes from tourism has been increasing during the last few years because of the Government showing the variety of climates and the biodiversity of Ecuador.  The largest ethnic group (as of 2010[update]) is the Mestizos, who are Amerindians with mixture or cultural influence from Spanish colonists, and constitute about 71% of the population. , Ecuador has a developing economy that is highly dependent on commodities, namely petroleum and agricultural products. This month should be avoided if you are not a big fan of rain. De Velasco wrote about the nations and chiefdoms that had existed in the Kingdom of Quito (today Ecuador) before the arrival of the Spanish. It will enhance any encyclopedic page you visit with the magic of the WIKI 2 technology. The current minister, or Ecuadorian general surgeon, is Margarita Guevara. While the most populated metropolitan areas of the country are those of Guayaquil, Quito, Cuenca, Manabí Centro (Portoviejo-Manta) and Ambato.  There are also public hospitals specialized to treat chronic diseases, target a particular group of the population, or provide better treatment in some medical specialties. In the Costa, the external coast has mostly intermittent rivers that are fed by constant rains from December through May and become empty riverbeds during the dry season. In the late 19th century, world demand for cocoa tied the economy to commodity exports and led to migrations from the highlands to the agricultural frontier on the coast. Auxiliary organs are as follows: notaries, court auctioneers, and court receivers. South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, "Climate change threatens 2 of Ecuador's 7 glaciers". The scientific production in hard sciences has been limited due to lack of funding but focused around physics, statistics, and partial differential equations in mathematics. Ecuador's Amerindian communities are integrated into the mainstream culture to varying degrees, but some may also practice their own native cultures, particularly the more remote Amerindian communities of the Amazon basin. Ecuador's judiciary has as its main body the Judicial Council, and also includes the National Court of Justice, provincial courts, and lower courts. Ecuador's population is ethnically diverse and the 2018 estimates put Ecuador's population at 17,084,358. Judges and prosecutors that have made decisions in favor of Correa in his lawsuits have received permanent posts, while others with better assessment grades have been rejected. The Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito and the José Joaquín de Olmedo International Airport in Guayaquil have experienced a high increase in demand and have required modernization. That's it. The new structure of some careers caused the dropping of subjects, credits, or even the name of the previously conferred diplomas. Ecuador has a highly changeable climate, which means that it can be variable at any time. As most of Ecuador is in the southern hemisphere, June to September is considered to be winter, and winter is generally the dry season in warm climates. You could also do it yourself at any point in time. The legacy of both empires is reflected in Ecuador's ethnically diverse population, with most of its 17.1 million people being mestizos, followed by large minorities of European, Native American, and African descendants. The legislative branch is embodied by the National Assembly, which is headquartered in the city of Quito in the Legislative Palace, and consists of 137 assemblymen, divided into ten committees and elected for a four-year term. The warm central. In spite of Ecuador's considerable mystique, it is rarely featured as a setting in contemporary western literature. Colombia protested stating that its claims extended south toward the Napo and Amazon Rivers. , After being elected in 2017, President Lenin Moreno's government adopted economically liberal policies: reduction of public spending, trade liberalization, flexibility of the labour code, etc. Plantain- and peanut-based dishes are the basis of most coastal meals. The maps below show you the climate types and annual average rainfall of Ecuador. These negotiations were long and tiresome. He also left the left-wing Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas in August 2018. In 1980, he founded the Partido Pueblo, Cambio y Democracia (People, Change, and Democracy Party) after withdrawing from the Concentración de Fuerzas Populares (Popular Forces Concentration) and governed until May 24, 1981, when he died along with his wife and the minister of defense, Marco Subia Martinez, when his Air Force plane crashed in heavy rain near the Peruvian border. In 1972, construction of the Andean pipeline was completed. Being a small country and a consumer of foreign technology, Ecuador has favored research supported by entrepreneurship in information technology. To install click the Add extension button. , Despite being on the UNESCO list, the Galápagos are endangered by a range of negative environmental effects, threatening the existence of this exotic ecosystem. In this post, you’ll learn about the climate across Ecuador: Galapagos Islands, Pacific coast, Andes Mountains, and Amazon jungle. Its climate and landscape varies from one end of the country to the other.  It also serves on the World Trade Organization (WTO), in addition to the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), Corporación Andina de Fomento (CAF) and other multilateral agencies. , Community health care centers (Centros de Salud) are found inside metropolitan areas of cities and in rural areas. Ecuador and Peru came to an accord formalized in the Rio Protocol, signed on January 29, 1942, in favor of hemispheric unity against the Axis Powers in World War II favouring Peru with the territory they occupied at the time the war came to an end. Once Gran Colombia was dissolved after the death of Simón Bolívar in 1830, Ecuador inherited the same border disputes and had the need of creating its own professional military force. , In the rural parts of Ecuador, Amerindian beliefs and Catholicism are sometimes syncretized. UN's Human Rights Council's (HRC) Universal Periodic Review (UPR) has treated the restrictions on freedom of expression and efforts to control NGOs and recommended that Ecuador should stop the criminal sanctions for the expression of opinions, and delay in implementing judicial reforms. Climate data and weather averages in Cuenca. Ecuador has a varied topography that includes coastal plains, central highlands, and a flat eastern jungle. The few exceptions are the longer, perennial rivers that flow throughout the external coast from the internal coast and La Sierra on their way to the Pacific Ocean. Ecuador also includes the Galápagos Islands in the Pacific, about 1,000 kilometres (621 mi) west of the mainland. Nevertheless, this number is declining because young people leave the country for the United States or Israel. On 10 October, protesters overran the capital Quito causing the Government of Ecuador to relocate to Guayaquil, but it was reported that the government still had plans to return to Quito.. Ecuador is unique in its geography because it is located on the Earth's equator. The 1930s and 1940s were marked by instability and emergence of populist politicians, such as five-time President José María Velasco Ibarra. The Military Academy General Eloy Alfaro (c. 1838) located in Quito is in charge to graduate the army officers.. August 10 is now celebrated as Independence Day, a national holiday..  Ecuador has qualified for the final rounds of the 2002, the 2006, & the 2014 FIFA World Cups.  This is explained to an extent by emigration and the economic stability achieved after adopting the U.S. dollar as official means of transaction (before 2000, the Ecuadorian sucre was prone to rampant inflation). A debate to modify this and other reforms, especially the one which granted control of the Higher Education System by the government, was practically passed with consensus by the multi-partisan National Assembly on August 4, 2010, but vetoed by President Rafael Correa, who wanted to keep the law strictly as it was originally redacted by his political party and SENPLADES (National Secretary of Planning and Development). In 1830, Ecuador separated from Gran Colombia and became an independent republic. Most of these communities and their descendants are located in the Guayas region of the country. The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. The Transparency and Social Control consists of the Council of Citizen Participation and Social Control, an ombudsman, the Comptroller General of the State, and the superintendents. The highland rivers broaden as they enter the more level areas of the Costa and the Oriente. Members of the National Court of Justice are appointed by the National Judicial Council for nine-year terms. Its inhabitants celebrated what is now Ecuador's official Independence Day on May 24, 1822. Peru began occupying the defenseless missionary villages in the Mainas or Maynas region, which it began calling Loreto, with its capital in Iquitos. While Ecuador can’t exactly be labeled as a major contributor to climate change (it’s responsible for about 0.1-0.2 percent of yearly greenhouse gas emissions), factors inside the country are poised to worsen the already negative effects. The mostly rural Montubio population of the coastal provinces of Ecuador, who might be classified as Pardo account for 7.4% of the population. The salvaged fragment is a Spanish translation from Quechua of the "Elegy to the Dead of Atahualpa", a poem written by Collahuazo, which describes the sadness and impotence of the Inca people of having lost their king Atahualpa. Popular sentiment in Ecuador became strongly nationalistic against Peru: graffiti could be seen on the walls of Quito referring to Peru as the "Cain de Latinoamérica", a reference to the murder of Abel by his brother Cain in the Book of Genesis. The final border demarcation came into effect on May 13, 1999 and the multi-national MOMEP (Military Observer Mission for Ecuador and Peru) troop deployment withdrew on June 17, 1999.. , According to Human Rights Watch (HRW) President Correa has intimidated journalists and subjected them to "public denunciation and retaliatory litigation". , Iglesia de San Sebastián church in Cuenca, Iglesia y Convento de San Francisco in Quito. The public finance of Ecuador consists of the Central Bank of Ecuador (BCE), the National Development Bank (BNF), the State Bank. Two percent of the population speak only Amerindian languages. Most of its fauna and flora lives in 26 protected areas by the State. The indigenous people of the Amazon jungle and coastal Ecuador remained relatively autonomous until the Spanish soldiers and missionaries arrived in force. The territories of modern-day Ecuador were once home to a variety of Amerindian groups that were gradually incorporated into the Inca Empire during the 15th century. Provincial governors and councilors (mayors, aldermen, and parish boards) are directly elected. In a year, the rainfall is 2162 mm | 85.1 inch. Ecuador also has people of middle eastern extraction that have also joined the ranks of the white minority. (May 2012), 2017 Service Year Report of Jehovah's Witnesses. The populace and the other branches of government give the president very little political capital, as illustrated by the most recent removal of President Lucio Gutiérrez from office by Congress in April 2005. Other early Ecuadorian writers include the Jesuits Juan Bautista Aguirre, born in Daule in 1725, and Father Juan de Velasco, born in Riobamba in 1727. Overbilling is recorded in 20% of public establishments and in 80% of private establishments. These areas were included as part of the territory of Gran Colombia by Bolivar on December 17, 1819, during the Congress of Angostura when the Republic of Gran Colombia was created. Poverty's down about 27 percent since he took office." This important date was established by the Spaniards on June 24, coincidentally the same date when Amerindian people celebrated their rituals of Inti Raymi. Thus, the region of highland Ecuador became part of the Inca Empire in 1463 sharing the same language. Across the vast Amazon area to the east, the climate is equatorial as well. In the first half of 2012, twenty private TV or radio stations were closed down. Since 2007, with the government of Rafael Correa, the tourism brand "Ecuador Ama la Vida" has been transformed, with which the nation's tourism promotion would be sold. Quito's altitude is listed at 2,820 metres (9,250 feet). The Napo ranges in width from 500 to 1,800 m (1,640 to 5,906 ft). In addition, there is a small European Jewish (Ecuadorian Jews) population, which is based mainly in Quito and to a lesser extent in Guayaquil. Based on weather reports collected during 2005–2015. The climates in Colombia are characterized for having tropical rainforests, savannas, steppes, deserts and mountain climate, mountain climate further divided into tierra caliente (hot land) tierra templada (temperate land) tierra fría (cold land), tierra helada (frozen land) and Páramo. Ecuador's mainstream culture is defined by its Hispanic mestizo majority, and, like their ancestry, it is traditionally of Spanish heritage, influenced in different degrees by Amerindian traditions and in some cases by African elements. The politics of Ecuador are multi-party. , The overall trade balance for August 2012 was a surplus of almost $390 million for the first six months of 2012, a huge figure compared with that of 2007, which reached only $5.7 million; the surplus had risen by about $425 million compared to 2006. In Antarctica, Ecuador has maintained a peaceful research station for scientific study as a member nation of the Antarctica Treaty. The electoral system functions by authorities which enter only every four years or when elections or referendums occur. Quito has a temperate climate with warm summers and some rainfall in all months.  Basic health care, including doctor's visits, basic surgeries, and basic medications, has been provided free since 2008. Thus, in addition to criollos, mestizos, and Afro-Ecuadorians, some people belong to the Amerindian nations scattered in a few places in the coast, Quechua Andean villages, and the Amazonian jungle. B. Through protocolized meetings between representatives of Peru and Gran Colombia, the border was set as Tumbes river in the west and in the east the Maranon and Amazon rivers were to be followed toward Brazil as the most natural borders between them. Its main functions are to organize, control elections, and punish the infringement of electoral rules.  23% of children under five are chronically malnourished. Birth rate is 2-1 for each death. Ecuador rejected the recommendation on decriminalization of libel. In the professional realm, a terminal degree granted by an accredited institution automatically provides a professional license to the individual.  Population in some rural areas have no access to potable water, and its supply is provided by mean of water tankers. In its upper reaches, the Napo flows rapidly until the confluence with one of its major tributaries, the Coca River, where it slows and levels off.  Between 1999 and 2007, GDP doubled, reaching $65,490 million according to BCE. The Venezuelan born President of Ecuador, the general Juan José Flores, with the approval of the Ecuadorian congress annexed the Department of Cauca on December 20, 1830, since the government of Cauca had called for union with the District of the South as far back as April 1830. , In December 2008, president Correa declared Ecuador's national debt illegitimate, based on the argument that it was odious debt contracted by corrupt and despotic prior regimes. The summers are much rainier than the winters in Quevedo. His historical accounts are nationalistic, featuring a romantic perspective of precolonial history. The sovereign state of Ecuador is a middle-income representative democratic republic and a developing country that is highly dependent on commodities, namely petroleum and agricultural products. Even though their languages were unrelated, these groups developed similar groups of cultures, each based in different environments. General Jose Ma. The rest of Ecuador gained its independence after Antonio José de Sucre defeated the Spanish Royalist forces at the Battle of Pichincha, near Quito. He won the 2019 Giro d'Italia. When Ecuador seceded from the Gran Colombia, Peru decided not to follow the treaty of Guayaquil of 1829 or the protocoled agreements made. Pasillo is a genre of indigenous Latin music. Ecuador has 61 universities, many of which still confer terminal degrees according to the traditional Spanish education system, honoring a long tradition of having some of the oldest universities in the Americas: University of San Fulgencio, founded in 1586 by the Augustines; San Gregorio Magno University, founded in 1651 by the Jesuits; and University of Santo Tomás of Aquino, founded in 1681 by the Dominican order. This new reorganization, although very ambitious, lacked the proper path to the homologation of diplomas for highly educated professionals graduated in the country or even for the ones graduated in foreign institutions. This caused a long-simmering dispute between Ecuador and Peru, which ultimately led to fighting between the two countries; first a border skirmish in January–February 1981 known as the Paquisha Incident, and ultimately full-scale warfare in January 1995 where the Ecuadorian military shot down Peruvian aircraft and helicopters and Peruvian infantry marched into southern Ecuador. In the 2006 FIFA World Cup, Ecuador finished ahead of Poland and Costa Rica finishing second behind Germany in Group A in the 2006 World Cup. The Peruvian Navy blocked the port of Guayaquil, almost cutting all supplies to the Ecuadorian troops. Through the years, many cultures have brought their influences together to create new types of music. , A series of protests began on 3 October 2019 against the end of fuel subsidies and austerity measures adopted by President of Ecuador Lenín Moreno and his administration. . Many of them were born in Guayaquil, such as: Alfredo Pareja Diezcanseco (1908, Guayaquil – d. 1993, Quito) Araceli Gilbert (b. Also there is a special legal regime for Amerindians. The Treaty of Pasto of 1832 was signed by which the Department of Cauca was turned over to New Granada (modern Colombia), the government of Bogotá recognized Ecuador as an independent country and the border was to follow the Ley de División Territorial de la República de Colombia (Law of the Division of Territory of the Gran Colombia) passed on June 25, 1824. They were led by Juan Pío Montúfar, Quiroga, Salinas, and Bishop Cuero y Caicedo. Peru briefly occupied Guayaquil again in 1860, since Peru thought that Ecuador was selling some of the disputed land for development to British bond holders, but returned Guayaquil after a few months.  The unusually high elevation of the home stadium in Quito often affects the performance of visiting teams. Peru contested Ecuador's claims with the newly discovered Real Cedula of 1802, by which Peru claims the King of Spain had transferred these lands from the Viceroyalty of New Granada to the Viceroyalty of Peru. The sentences to journalists have been years of imprisonment and millions of dollars of compensation, even though defendants have been pardoned. Both sunrise and sunset occur each day at the two six o'clock hours.. The first university in the city was established in 1867 and is the Universidad de Cuenca. The classic paradigm of the Italian immigrant today was not that of the small trader from Liguria as it had been before; those who emigrated to Ecuador were professionals and technicians, employees and religious people from South-Central Italy. Contemporary Ecuadorian scientists who have been recognized by international institutions are Eugenia del Pino (born 1945), the first Ecuadorian to be elected to the United States National Academy of Science, and Arturo Villavicencio, who was part of the working group of the IPCC, which shared the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize with Al Gore for their dissemination of the effects of climate change. This city is also the largest business center of the country. Ecuadorian cuisine is diverse, varying with the altitude and associated agricultural conditions. "), named after Eloy Alfaro. The icons of the Ecuadorian military forces are Marshall Antonio José de Sucre and General Eloy Alfaro. This situation came from the improvement of the economic situation in Liguria. Coordinates: 2°00′S 77°30′W / 2.000°S 77.500°W / -2.000; -77.500, Ecuador (/ˈɛkwədɔːr/ (listen) EK-wə-dor; Spanish pronunciation: [ekwaˈðoɾ] (listen); Quechua: Ikwayur; Shuar: Ecuador or Ekuatur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (Spanish: República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Quechua: Ikwadur Ripuwlika; Shuar: Ekuatur Nunka), is a country in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean on the west.  The most notable icons in Ecuadorian sciences are the mathematician and cartographer Pedro Vicente Maldonado, born in Riobamba in 1707, and the printer, independence precursor, and medical pioneer Eugenio Espejo, born in 1747 in Quito. , Provision of public schools falls far below the levels needed, and class sizes are often very large, and families of limited means often find it necessary to pay for education. Later, Ecuador contended that the Republic of Colombia, while reorganizing its government, unlawfully made its eastern border provisional and that Colombia extended its claims south to the Napo River because it said that the Government of Popayán extended its control all the way to the Napo River. I t is interesting to see that in the tropics very few Latin Americans distinguish between climate and weather and they use the two words for both meanings. , People engaging in public protests against environmental and other issues are prosecuted for "terrorism and sabotage", which may lead to an eight-year prison sentence. The industry is concentrated mainly in Guayaquil, the largest industrial center, and in Quito, where in recent years the industry has grown considerably. Given its geographical location and rugged topography, Ecuador is a highly vulnerable country to impacts of climate change (UNFCCC First National Communication, Quito, 2000). That military junta was led by Admiral Alfredo Poveda, who was declared chairman of the Supreme Council. Currently the most successful football team in Ecuador is LDU Quito, and it is the only Ecuadorian team that has won the Copa Libertadores, the Copa Sudamericana, and the Recopa Sudamericana; they were also runners-up in the 2008 FIFA Club World Cup. , In the coastal region, seafood is very popular, with fish, shrimp, and ceviche being key parts of the diet. The territory was colonized by Spain during the 16th century, achieving independence in 1820 as part of Gran Colombia, from which it emerged as its own sovereign state in 1830. The 2002 FIFA World Cup qualifying campaign was considered a huge success for the country and its inhabitants. Ecuador is currently placed in 96th position of innovation in technology. Branch members hold office for five years. Nonetheless, a "médico" can start a career as family practitioner or general medicine physician. Weather in Ecuador, (El clima en Ecuador ). Ecuador has won two medals in the Olympic Games, both gained by 20-km (12 mi) racewalker Jefferson Pérez, who took gold in the 1996 games and silver 12 years later. They developed different languages while emerging as unique ethnic groups. Use of these Amerindian languages are, however, gradually diminishing due to Spanish's widespread use in education. Places like Quito, the capital, are close to 10,000 feet (3000 meters) high! In the same fashion for medical school, the required time of education was considerably reduced from nine years (the minimum needed to obtain the title of MD in Medicine and Surgery) to almost five, with the provision that the diploma is not terminal anymore, and it is given with the title of médico (medic). A Day in the life. In 2008, the government introduced universal and compulsory social security coverage. They were defeated by England in the second round. In Ecuador's current judicial system, judges are selected in a contest of merits, rather than government appointments. Four years later in 1941, amid fast-growing tensions within disputed territories around the Zarumilla River, war broke out with Peru. The weather in Quito is consistent with that of a subtropical highland climate. As today, a master's degree is a requirement to keep an academic position and at least a foreign PhD to attain or retain the status of rector (president of a university) or décano (dean).
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