As a volcanic island subsides, or sinks, with time, the growing reef keeps pace with the rising water level. This study is part of the USGS Coral Reef Project. Coral reef is often nicknamed as the rainforest of the sea. The polyps that form reefs measure between 3 and 56 mm in length. Coral reefs are sensitive indicators of the health of marine environments. When they die, the minerals stay behind, slowly building up into huge reefs that provide shelter for vast numbers of other sea plants and animals. Red Sea Coral Reef Facts Next up is the Red Sea Coral Reef which resides mainly in Egypt. The Great Barrier Reef arches over 2000 kilometers along the northeast coast of Australia. The Earth's first reef-building organisms were photosynthesizing cyanobacteria living about 3.5 billion years ago. Volcanic islands subside; that is, they have a tendency to cool, condense, and sink through time. Coral reef fishes The Coral Triangle has more coral reef fish diversity than anywhere else in the world: 37% (2,228) of the world’s coral reef fish species (6,000), and 56% of the coral reef fishes in the Indo-Pacific region (4,050). These vibrant metropolises provide food and shelter for millions of species of fishes, sea turtles, crustaceans and invertebrates — making coral reefs one of Earth’s most diverse habitats. While the conditions are extreme, the deep sea is home to an abundant variety of life. About 10% of the thousands of species found here are home only to this reef and haven’t been discovered anywhere else in the world. The biggest coral reef, down in Australasia, is the aptly-named Great Barrier Reef. 6 Coral reef diversity. Learn all about coral reefs and ocean life in this fun coral reef habitat diorama craft. Climate change will affect coral reef ecosystems, through sea level rise, changes to the frequency and intensity of tropical storms, and altered ocean circulation patterns. Elkhorn coral is one of the most important corals in the Caribbean. Learn how coral reproduces and when you can book a night dive to experience coral spawning on the Great Barrier Reef! Coral reefs cover less than 1 percent of the Earth’s surface yet feed and shelter a significant amount of marine life, including some 4,000 species of fish. As part of the USGS Coral Reef Project, the USGS is working on the island of Kauaʻi to identify circulation patterns and a sediment budget for Hanalei Bay to help determine any effects to the coastal marine ecosystem. Elkhorn coral can form de The primary threats to coral reefs are climate change, pollution, and impacts from unsustainable fishing. Large reefs are thousands of years old. Habitat-use and Specialisation among Coral Reef Damselfishes, Biology of Damselfishes, 10.1201/9781315373874, (84-121), (2016). Photo by Paul Harrison, Reading, UK, CC BY-SA 3.0. The mollusk inside this shell spears its prey with venomous darts. Check out our infographic!) Threats to coral reef ecosystems Unfortunately, coral reef ecosystems are severely threatened. Coral polyps are tiny, soft-bodied organisms related to sea anemones and jellyfish. The Great Barrier Reef is the jewel in Queensland's crown and one of the seven wonders of the natural world. Coral atolls develop from reefs fringing volcanic islands. There are two main types of coral reef habitat which are hard coral reefs and soft coral reefs. Deep-sea corals, like their warm-water cousins, are actually colonies of small animals that build a common skeleton, which grows into many shapes and colors. (More of a visual person? On coral reefs, the crustaceans are part of one of the most diverse and complex ecosystems on Earth. The three main types of coral reefs are fringing reefs, barrier reefs, and coral atolls. Animal Bytes Animal Bytes. That’s because most of Earth’s surface—more than 70 percent—is covered by oceans. Coral reefs are also linked ecologically to nearby seagrass, mangrove, and mudflat communities. Pollution and sediment runoff from land are major causes of stress, and even human activities conducted at great distance through warming and pollution can affect coral sustainability. Learn more about coral reefs from the videos below. What … Coral atolls develop from reefs fringing volcanic islands. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), Mapping, Remote Sensing, and Geospatial Data, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center, Coastal and Marine Hazards and Resources Program, Sea-Level Rise and Climate Change Impacts to Reefs, Region 2: South Atlantic-Gulf (Includes Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands), Region 12: Pacific Islands (American Samoa, Hawaii, Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands), Resilience and Recovery: Science for Future Reefs, Circulation and Sediment, Nutrient, Contaminant, and Larval Dynamics on Reefs, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, Hawai‘i Department of Land and Natural Resources, Hawaiʻi Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaiʻi, University of California, Santa Cruz: Earth & Planetary Sciences. The Coral Triangle has more coral reef fish diversity than anywhere else in the world: 37% (2,228) of the world’s coral reef fish species (6,000), and 56% of the coral reef fishes in the Indo-Pacific region (4,050). There are two types of corals. Find quick information and fun facts with these 1-page easy resources about animals from A to Z. Cloth of gold cone shell. Facts about Coral Reefs 3: the habitat of coral reefs The coral reefs are abundant around the shallow waters. Most hard corals also host symbiotic algae, a long-standing and successful partnership. Yet coral reefs are in decline in many parts of he world. Coral reefs are large platforms of minerals. A common mistake made by people today is thinking that coral reefs are plants. As they subside, tropical coral reefs grow upward along their margins. General Facts About Coral Reefs. That’s because most of Earth’s surface—more than 70 percent—is covered by oceans. Learn about the USGS Coral Reef Project's current studies by topic, and its study locations, listed below. Coral reefs cover less than 1 percent of the Earth’s surface yet feed and shelter a significant amount of marine life, including some 4,000 species of … Ocean habitat facts and photos From outer space Earth looks like an awesome blue marble. Unfortunately, 25% of coral reefs are irrevocably damaged. They prefer tropical and subtropical habitats with warm waters. Put Them In a Zoo. They are formed by tiny living creatures depositing limestone, or calcium carbonate, which builds up over time. They love to live in the sea floor and … Scientists generally restrict the definition of a reef to rigid biological constructions. Take a closer look at these encyclopedia books including information about animal habitats, behavior, and scientific classification. Most of the substantial coral reefs found today are between 5,000 and 10,000 years old, according to CORAL. Coral reef ecosystems cover only 1% of the ocean, but 25% of marine creatures live in them. Illustration by Laura Torresan, USGS. Habitat Requirements Although various types of corals can be found from the water's surface to depths of 19,700 ft. (6,000 m), reef-building corals are generally found at depths of less than 150 ft (46 m), where sunlight penetrates. Large reefs grow at the rate of 1 to 2 cm per year. Fishes and other organisms shelter, find food, reproduce, and rear their young in the many nooks and crannies formed by corals. Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey put together a detailed picture of the physical environment of the coral reefs at Makua Beach. Corals have a wide distribution in the world's oceans, but the varieties that form reefs typically are restricted to relatively shallow, warm tropical waters between 30° north and south latitudes. While coralreefs initially made the Great Barrier Reef famous, they only comprise about seven per cent of the Marine Park and the World Heritage Area. As part of the USGS Coral Reef Project, the USGS is trying to better understand how nearshore processes impact the deeper, scattered coral reef communities of Kahoʻolawe. Active volcanic islands are found at the southeast end of the chain. However, parts of it stretch into Saudi Arabia as well as Israel. Beyond Kauaʻi, however, islands are subsiding slowly and coral reefs have developed around the volcanic cores of islands. Coral reefs are naturally colorful because of algae, which. Click here to Learn more about diving and marine conservation trip, Click here to Learn more about our volunteer projects, Click here to Learn more about trip information, Click here to Learn more about important trip information, Click here to Learn more about island accommodation and meals, Click here to Learn more about weekend accommodations, Click here to Learn more about weekend activities, Click here to Learn more about diving certification courses and diving questions, Click here to Learn more about frequently asked questions, Click here to Learn more about about belize, Click here to Learn more about meet our team, Click here to Learn more about donate now, Click here to Learn more about contact us, Click here to call USA Phone: (513) 334-9393, Click here to view location Placencia, Belize. 18. Because of the diversity of life found in the habitats created by corals, reefs are often called the "rainforests of the sea." Coral Reef Habitats Coral reefs are some of the most unique and beautiful habitats on earth. USGS Investigations of coral reefs are cooperative efforts. Coral reefs provide habitat for a large variety of marine life, including various sponges, oysters, clams, crabs, sea stars, sea urchins, and many species of fish. Reefs fringing volcanic islands build vertically to sea level, forming steep-walled barrier reefs. When the island eventually submerges, the ring-shaped reef forms an atoll with a central lagoon. As part of the USGS Coral Reef Project, the USGS is working on the Kona (west) coast of Hawaiʻi to evaluate geologic resources at two historical parks. When corals are stressed, they expel these algal symbionts through a process known as coral bleaching. The USGS aims to help Hawaii preserve its underwater natural resources by tracing how oceanography may influence coral disease outbreaks. Fact 1: Coral reefs are neither plants or rocks, they’re animals. This loss is It's estimated that some of the largest reefs took as long as 30 million years to form. So instead, here are 25 fascinating facts about coral reefs that you might not know, from general info and the benefits of coral reef systems to a few of the world’s most impressive sites. These algae provide them with an additional food source through photosynthesis. Coral reefs are dynamic, evolving through time into different forms. Residents and visitors both revel in Kauai’s lush landscape, and beneath its seascape. 4. Find out about the kinds of coral found in the Great Barrier Reef and their importance in the coral reef ecosystem. To a surfer, a reef is an undersea obstruction that can make waves (and surfboards) break. Coral Facts Coral reefs are an amazing expression of nature. Habitat for Millions. Known as “rainforests of the sea,” coral reefs cover less than 1% of the ocean but are home to almost 25% of all known marine species! Clam. They are built from colonial polyps from the phylum Cnidaria which secrete an exoskeleton of calcium carbonate.The reefs are formed in tropical marine areas (30 degrees north and south of the equator) and between the tropics. Sea grass forms broad underwater meadows in calm, shallow waters that are sheltered by the coral reef. About 25 percent of all marine species are found in, on, and around coral reefs, rivaling the biodiversity of tropical rainforests. The coral reefs will choose the agitated, shallow and warm water to live. Large reefs grow at the rate of 1 to 2 cm per year. Reefs fringing volcanic islands build vertically to sea level, forming steep-walled barrier reefs. Habitat of the Reef Shark This species primarily lives in shallow regions close to shore. In addition, coral reefs usually love to grow in the area with frequent waves. For a limited time, every dollar you donate will be matched 2-for-1 by our Board of Directors and President’s Circle. https://patreon.com/freeschool - Help support more content like this! Active coral growth is on the margins of the island. 1. They are most often found in warm, clear, shallow water where there's plenty of sunlight to nurture the algae that the coral rely on for food.Coral reefs cover less than 1 percent of the ocean floor — all the reefs combined would equal an area of about 110,000 square miles (285,000 square km), only about the size of the state of Nevada. Explore the fascinating undersea world of coral reefs. Coral reef fishes . Polyps gather food particles with the nemotocysts (stinging, venomous cells) in their tentacles, and feed from sugars produced by photosynthesizing zooxanthellae, a type of algae. Crustaceans are a main component of the diet of coral reef fishes. 4 Add backrgound details. Coral reef bleaching, the temporary or permanent loss of photosynthetic microalgae (zooxanthellae) and/or their pigments by a variety of reef taxa, is … They like the spot for they will get more sunlight than in the deep water. When a Coral reef dies, thousands or millions of other animals suffer as well. Today, stromatolites live in stressed marine environments. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Chairman Russell Reichelt said ongoing and future climate impacts were concerning. About 25% of the ocean's fish depend on healthy coral reefs. Coral reefs are important ocean habitats and offer a compelling case of the risks of climate change.Reefs provide a large fraction of Earth’s biodiversity—they have been called “the rain forests of the seas.” Scientists estimate that 25 percent of all marine species live in and around coral reefs, making them one of the most diverse habitats in the world. Crustaceans’ habitat loss. They are formed by coral polyps, tiny animals that look a little like sea anemones. Interestingly, this reef is home to great biodiversity. Animal Habitat Differentiated Fact File Worksheets FREE Resource! A coral reef is a large underwater structure made of dead and living corals (press to see more). Reefs usually develop in areas that have a lot of wave action because the waves bring in food, nutrients and oxygen to the reef. Reefs occur in less than 1 percent of the ocean, yet are home to nearly one-quarter of all ocean species.These ancient structures make a perfect home for millions of species of fish, crabs, clams, starfish, squid, sponges, lobsters, seahorses, sea … Crossref NM Gardiner, GP Jones, Habitat specialisation, site fidelity and sociality predict homing success in coral reef cardinalfish, Marine Ecology Progress Series, 10.3354/meps11866, 558 , (81-96), (2016). Fact: Tourism to the reef generates approximately AU$5-6 billion per year. It is critically important to better understand the role of natural processes and the impact that human activities may have on coral reef health. To a mariner, the term "reef" applies to shallowly submerged navigational hazards. 18 animals in the coral reef - Characteristics,rely on coral reef ecosystem and also the other animal that maybe you have never known before is all here. Coral reefs are formed by huge colonies of corals that secrete hard calcareous (aragonite) exoskeletons that give them structural rigidity. Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey and University of Western Australia convened here at Ningaloo Reef and Jurabi Coastal Reserve to embark on the most extensive study EVER done into how coral reefs shape our coasts. These living reef structures provide shelter, food and breeding grounds for numerous marine plants and animals. In fact, it’s a real job provider. They are built from colonial polyps from the phylum Cnidaria which secrete an exoskeleton of calcium carbonate.. Here are some interesting facts and statistics about the Great Barrier Reef: Fact: The Great Barrier Reef is a popular tourist destination with over two million visitors each year. Stromatolites, such as the ones shown above, are living fossils. Coral communities can be found in shallow or deep waters. Coral reefs grow very slowly. Coral reefs are naturally colorful because of algae, which lives inside of the coral, providing them … It’s thought to make up around 10% of all coral reefs on Earth. These stromatolites are growing in Hamelin Pool Marine Nature Reserve, Shark Bay in Western Australia. The coral reefs are apparently waiting for the sun all the time. Where there is a coral reef, there must be the crustaceans. Ocean Habitat From outer space Earth looks like an awesome blue marble. The causes of reef degradation are many. It, along with staghorn coral and star corals (boulder, lobed, and mountainous), built Caribbean coral reefs over the last 5,000 years. However, parts of it stretch into Saudi Arabia as well as Israel. A coral reef is a large underwater structure made of dead and living corals (press to see more). Located in the Philippines, Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1993 due to its pristine coral reef system. Instead of forming rock-like reefs, these cold-water corals form groves of tr… The polyps surround themselves with layers of hard minerals. About 10% of the In most healthy reefs, stony corals are predominant. The coral reefs like warm water. Some threats are natural, such as diseases, predators, and storms.Other threats are caused by people, including pollution, sedimentation, unsustainable fishing practices, and climate change, which is raising ocean temperatures and causing ocean acidification. Graphic is presentation-ready: copy and paste for use in a handout or presentation. The white calcium carbonate that coats the coral reflects light, making the water above the reef appear bright blue from space. This means they help each other to survive. They are relatives of jellyfish and anemones. Coral reefs are made up from coral (which itself is an animal), that exists with other animals such as sponges and sea slugs. After initial colonization of a hard substrate and given suitable conditions for coral growth, an individual larval "spatfall" gives rise to a colony. As part of the USGS Coral Reef Project, recent USGS work on Molokaʻi includes looking into the coral record to find clues to past sedimentation events. Children form a reef fish on a beach in Hong Kong on April 23, 2015 to mark the 3rd annual Kids Ocean Day. Next up is the Red Sea Coral Reef which resides mainly in Egypt. Facts About the Coral Reef. Dying Coral Reefs – Something We Should All Think About Finally, let’s turn to sadder coral reef ecosystem facts, as statistics show that we have already lost roughly 10% of the world’s coral reef systems. Coral reef habitats represent some of the densest and most biodiverse ecosystems on Earth. Corals also face serious risk of diseases; black band, white band, and yellow band diseases have been reported from many localities. Reef Death – Because so many different animals rely on reefs as an ecosystem and home, their decline causes serious problems. Habitat of the Coral Coral reefs are also linked ecologically to nearby seagrass, mangrove Red Sea Coral Reef Facts. In most healthy reefs, stony corals are predominant. Global coral bleaching over the last two years has led to widespread coral decline and habitat loss on the Great Barrier Reef. Coral reefs are the largest structures on earth of biological origin. Understanding just what these reefs are exposed to and for how long, may help explain why. It is estimated that 30% will be destroyed or seriously degraded in the next ten years. The Hawaiian Islands’ beautiful ocean and beaches attract more than 8.5 million tourists each year. At their base is a hard, protective limestone skeleton called a calicle, which forms the structure of coral reefs. Coral reefs provide habitat for a large variety of marine life, including various sponges, oysters, clams, crabs, sea stars, sea urchins, and many species of fish. There are more than 15000 species of clam in the world. Rather than having one level of protection throughout the Marine Park, the area is instead divided into di… The Hawaiian Islands-Emperor Seamounts chain is a classic example of this process. There are several facts about the Great Barrier Reef that will amaze you. … Pitch in to protect and restore wolves, whales, polar bears and other wildlife! 8% (235 species) of the coral reef fishes in the Coral Triangle are endemic or locally restricted species. Facts About the Coral Reef Coral reefs grow very slowly. Habitats quiz Take the quiz > Sea grass. They are being stressed and killed by a variety of local human activities such as grounding of ships, improperly placed anchorages, destructive fishing practices, such as dynamiting or cyanide poisoning, and simply overfishing, which disrupts the balance of these fragile ecosystems. Coral reefs cover approximately 26,000 square kilometers (10,039 square miles) around the Philippines. French Frigate Shoals, Midway, and Necker Islands are dominantly coral limestone accumulations, but deep sediment cores have revealed the volcanic origins of these islands. The U.S. Geological Survey scientists are working in partnership and cooperation with the following organizations. Facts about Coral Reefs 4: the As coral reefs become stressed, they also are more susceptible to viral and bacterial infections, such as black, white, and yellow band diseases. There are hundreds of different coral species in the oceans, but they … Here are some interesting facts about coral reefs. The location is often along the eastern shores of land. Interestingly, this reef is home to great biodiversity. Little is actually known about the overall extent, biodiversity, morphology, or health of Lānaʻi’s reef tracks. Corals can be animal, mineral, and plant all at once! It's estimated that some of the largest reefs took as long as 30 million years to form. Believe it or not, the Great Barrier Reef helps to Reef Bleaching Reef bleaching occurs when extreme water conditions cause corals to expel the internal microorganisms that give them their vibrant colors. A coral reef is an underwater ecosystem characterized by reef-building corals.Reefs are formed of colonies of coral polyps held together by calcium carbonate.Most coral reefs are built from stony corals, whose polyps cluster in groups. Coral reefs are some of the most diverse ecosystems on earth. However, it’s underwater where things don’t look so healthy. Corals come in a wide array of shapes, sizes, and colors. HABITAT: Coral reefs need water that is between 68 - 82°F (20 - 28°C), which is often located along the eastern shores of land. Coral Reef Facts for Kids: the Habitat. On the remote western coast of Australia lies a UNESCO World Heritage Site above and below the sea. This coral atoll in the South Pacific shows a well developed central lagoon and emergent reef crest. Unlike tropical reefs, they live from 150 feet to more than 10,000 feet below sea level, where sunlight is dim to nonexistent. Coral reefs grow slowly in warm tropical waters, building up their colorful shapes over hundreds and thousands of years. These colonial "hard corals" may form elaborate finger-shaped, branching, or mound-shaped structures, and can create masses of limestone that stretch for tens or even hundreds of miles. However, you can also spot few of them living in the cold water or even deep waters. A box positioned standing up emphasizes depth, giving you more space to include a variety of creatures that live in different Learn how we map, monitor, and model coral reefs so we can better understand, protect, and preserve our Nation's reefs. Clean, clear water with the right amount of nutrients is essential to their health. During his voyages on the HMS Beagle, Charles Darwin first recognized the progressive development of coral reefs on volcanic islands. Coral Reef Facts 20 Wonderous Coral Reef Facts By Karin Lehnardt, Senior Writer Published December 8, 2019 Corals are not plants. When combined, all of these impacts dramatically alter ecosystem function, as well as the goods and services coral reef ecosystems provide to people around the globe. However, coral reef development occurs only in areas with specific environmental characteristics: a solid structure for attachment, relatively high water temperatures, clear waters low in phosphate and nitrogen nutrients, and moderate wave action to disperse waste and bring oxygen and plankton to the reef. Polyps can live for several hundred […] https://patreon.com/freeschool - Help support more content like this! Animal Sounds Animal Sounds. Facts about Coral Reefs 2: the nickname. Join Reef Conservation International in our fight to protect and preserve the Belize Barrier Reef! This phenomenon allows the reef to be visible in satellite images, such as this one. Solitary and colonial corals catch plankton and suspended food particles with arm-like tentacles, which feed a centrally located mouth. The hard skeleton of coral is formed by the secretion of calcium carbonate by the polyp. Coral reefs are the most diverse habitats on the planet. The word "reef" has different meanings to different people. Hawaiian corals, however, have been relatively free from disease, but the first case of black band disease was reported in 1994. The cup-like skeleton deposited by an individual polyp is called a corallite. As coral thickets build upward on the skeletal remains of older colonies, a reef is established. National Park Service's "Explore Nature: Coral Reefs" page. Click on a pin on the map to see more information. While coral reefs make up less than 0.1% of the Earth's oceans, over 25% of all species of marine life can be found there. Soft corals are individual animals (known as polyps) which move through the waters, and eventually settle. Corals are animals related to jellyfish and anemones. Large, visible reefs like the Great Barrier Reef in Australia are … This study is part of the USGS Coral Reef Project. Coral reef destruction can be preventable, but awareness on a massive scale is necessary to implement changes that will be long lasting. Corals have been found in fossil reefs as old as 500 million years, but corals similar to the modern colonial varieties have constructed reefs "only" during the last 60 million years. From fossil remains, it is known that a variety of organisms have constructed reefs, including bivalves (clams and oysters), bryozoans (coral-like animals), and sponges. Often, atolls will be mistaken for islands because they are so large and generally appear on the rim of a lagoon. Only 5% of corals in the Philippines are considered to be in excellent condition. Animals and Nature › Habitats and ecosystems › Coral reef › Quiz. Given enough time, coral colonies become thickets. The coral tissue protects these algae from herbivorous grazers, and the algae in turn use many of the polyps' waste products such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Stretching over 550 miles from Cancun to Honduras, the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef is the world’s second largest coral reef system, attracting some 150,000 people to Mexico each year. The temperature should between 68 – 82°F. (Image credit: Dan Norton Coral.org) Coral reefs under siege Coral reefs are critical marine habitat … 5. Facts about Coral Reefs 1: the best places for coral reefs. Coral reefs are not only beautiful, they are incredibly diverse ecosystems. The rest of the Marine Park is an extraordinary variety of marine habitats, ranging from shallow inshore areas – such as seagrass, mangroves, sand, algal and sponge gardens, and inter-reefal communities – to deep oceanic areas more than 250km offshore. As part of the USGS Coral Reef Project, the USGS collected high-resolution swath bathymetry data and underwater video and photography in early 2013 in order to develop high-resolution seafloor habitat and... As part of USGS Coral Reef Project studies, the USGS has been heavily involved in efforts to improve the health and resilience of Maui's coral reef system, bringing expertise in mapping, circulation and sediment studies, and seismic surveys. It's a beautiful living thing stretching 2300 km along the Queensland coast and home to an assortment of marine life including whales, dugongs, dolphins and sharks. Some key facts about the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park: covers 344,400 km 2 in area includes the world’s largest coral reef ecosystem includes some 3000 coral reefs, 600 continental islands, 300 coral cays and about 150 They built the first reefs on Earth. These facts about coral reefs are presented in conjunction with the USGS Coral Reef Project. Due to their hardened appearance, … Looking into contaminants in the freshwater, or how quickly a bay may or may not flush, will help enrich future and past studies about. Coral reefs can be divided into three types: fringing reefs, barrier reefs, and atolls.Fringing reefs are close to shore, whereas a barrier reef will lie further out to sea. No data point selected. Today, richly diverse coral reefs are found along tropical coastlines, on the margins of volcanic islands, and as isolated coral atolls. A coral reef isn’t a “thing,” it’s actually a community of life that lives and thrives in one location. Some animals in the coral reef have symbiotic relationships. Little is actually known about the overall extent, biodiversity, morphology, or health of Lānaʻi’s reef tracks. Destructive fishing practices, coral mining, and climate change are some of the reasons behind their plight.
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